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BMW Motorcycle Repair & Information Site!
© "Copyright, 2014, R. Fleischer"

Snowbum is also known as Robert (Bob) Fleischer,  "The Expatiating Scribe of the Sierra")

You are looking at the Technical Articles List page.
These articles are listed considerably BELOW.
This is NOT the HomePage.
CLICK for HomePage 

This website is best with wider screens running Internet Explorer but will be "reasonably usable" on Firefox, Chrome, and Safari.  
It is NOT optimized for small screens, tablets, and smart phones.   This may result in some things not displayed without scanning side to side.









Hyperlink to an article on this website, a Winter Tale: CLICK!


1952, January....there is a road here someplace....




Technical information on this website is 

But, if you want to help with website costs, click here:  DONATING
That page also has history and also information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone!

Animation by Mo Massen; furnished to me by Alessandro Zorat. 

Internet mailing LISTS, Club, and websites:

New to Internet Mailing Lists?  Especially if new to BMW motorcycle riding & BMW motorcycle riders....
Please click & read the short article!!
After which you may want to read this:   click

"Airhead" is slang for a BMW boxer air-cooled twin manufactured between December 1969 and the
end of production in 1996. "Airhead" does not include the boxer twins known as Oilheads, nor
Hexheads nor Camheads.

Please post inquiries to the Airheads LIST. 
By doing so, your questions, and the answers, which may come from several sources on that LIST, will
help more than just yourself.  This also helps me, as I can not keep up with individual replies
anymore......I need time to eat, sleep, and have a life!!   The information just below shows how to join
the Airheads CLUB, and how to become a member of the FREE internet LIST. NOTE that the
website contains extensive technical articles, some of which I, blush, wrote.  If you are NOT a club
member, you still have access to all information on the .org website EXCEPT the Technical Tips articles.
Do not confuse the website, with the internet mailing LIST, nor the Airheads Beemer Club.
Most of us Airhead owners are members of all three. When a paid member of the CLUB, you receive
the monthly publication, AIRMAIL,
and you then also have access to the .org website TECHNICAL TIPS.
Airheads CLUB website:
NOTE: you will have NO access to the extensive Technical Tips section... it is not even displayed to you
that it is available, unless you are a PAID CLUB MEMBER. You can JOIN on that site.

The FREE Airheads e-mailing LIST is primarily for technical information, and is best for immediate
personalized technical advice about Airheads.  You can subscribe to the AIRHEADS LIST by going to
the following URL, scan down a bit, and follow directions:

I highly suggest you do
NOT use the Digest mode, it is much less helpful than you might think.
Digest mode WILL...or MIGHT... require YOU to do MUCH more editing in order for you to properly
reply to messages, and failure to do that editing is particularly VERY annoying on hand-held devices,
AND, excessive message lengths costs money for those that pay by the byte. Without proper editing you will
post entire digests with your replies...a BIG NO NO!
Put into your computer E-mail address book, perhaps using a nickname
such as "Airheads"; so you don't have to type the full address when YOU post a message. Most E-mail
programs can do this.  If need-be, set your program to accept LIST messages. You will post and receive
mail to/from:
I suggest you set your outgoing messages for PLAIN TEXT.  You cannot post html (images, colors, etc.)

To see all the Micapeak mailing lists and to sign onto any of them:

***NOTE: does
NOT spam you, does NOT sell or otherwise pass out your E-mail address. does
NOT put advertising into your or other folks E-mail messages to their Lists.

Other lists:

THE major sidecarist's technical LIST:  
Snowbum IS active on this LIST, and is a Moderator. This list is primarily technically oriented.  It can be quiet, or busy.

Technical LIST for EML sidecars:
Snowbum IS active on this LIST, and is a Moderator. This list is primarily technically oriented. Typically rather quiet.
The SCL in that address stands for SideCarLounge, which is of no importance at all, it is just how the list was named.

Western USA branch of the United Sidecar Association:
(Snowbum monitors that list). This LIST is primarily for chit-chat, places, people, events, etc. It tends to be rather quiet.

You may also be interested in which has a LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.

If you own a Classic K-bike (K1, K75, K100, K1100), join the K-bmw mailing LIST.
Snowbum IS active on this LIST, which is primarily technically oriented:

There is an Internet-based FORUM for the K1200-K1300 series:
Snowbum is not on that list.

There is a K11 owners group list.  The site is quite active in the FORUMS section.          Snowbum does not participate normally, on this site.

Sometimes known as "The Big LIST", the following website covers all BMW motorcycles, with lots of technical things.
Snowbum monitors and sometimes participates on the IBMWR tech list.

Oilheads, Hexheads, Camheads, K bikes:
  Snowbum does NOT monitor nor participate here.
Some other important LISTS and FORUMS are shown in this Technical Articles List page in the K bike or Oilhead areas.

NOTE that the BMW Motorcycle Owners of America has forums on just about every BMW product since BMW began, right up to
the present moment.  You must be a member to access and participate.  Snowbum participates on the Airheads forum now and then.


The LAWYERLY legal stuff:

The information on this website is provided at no cost and without any warranty whatsoever.  It is my personal information/opinion, which you may use at your own discretion for personal use only. Your usage does NOT make me liable for any problems.   Improperly maintained motorcycles can lead to serious injury or death or unavoidable accidents.  I am not responsible for any errors contained herein, and I make no claims whatsoever as to the safety, validity, or veracity of the information contained in these documents. Any use of the information contained in/on this website, that leads to any work you choose to do or not to do on your or anyone else's motorcycle is done at your own risk. If you do not know what you're doing, take your motorcycle to a reputable shop with skilled professional mechanics.  The instructions & information contained on these various pages merely document how the author may do his own maintenance.

Copyright information:

MOST of the articles on this website are copyrighted.   ALL ARTICLES WRITTEN BY ME AND LISTED ON THIS PAGE, OR OTHER PAGES, ARE COPYRIGHTED (unless otherwise noted).  My copyright exists whether or not you see the  © copyright symbol.  NOTE!  In general, my technical article pages show a copyright date at the top, and at the bottom.  These are NOT necessarily the date that the original article was copyrighted by me.  I change the year date if it does not agree with the present year, when I make an update to content or other information associated with that page. You are granted use for yourself, printed or electronic copies.   You are also granted approval for incorporation by reference or hyperlink to my articles for many other uses.  You must not abridge, modify, shorten, or otherwise edit my articles, unless it is made clear that you are doing so, and YOU MUST prominently note any change in INTENT, or INFORMATION.  You are NOT granted permission to DUPLICATE my articles, in part, or entirety, without prior permission from me, except as above noted.   Commercial duplication; or, editing and publishing in any manner the content or part-content of my articles; and/or failure to quote me as the source/author, use of plagiarism, etc.; including sale or other commercial activity, beyond what is specifically herein allowed without specific permission, will result in public announcement of same, and may result in prosecution under the laws of the United States.  These are NOT idle threats, I HAVE gone after those who plagiarize and misuse my written articles.  I'm VERY protective of my articles...but I will usually grant you usage beyond just for ask!  On purpose I do not make money off my articles (except if someone clicks on a Google Ad-Sense advertisement), and I don't want you to.  I also do not want you copying my material to disc or other media, and then selling them, even at cost, even for just the hard materials. 

Keep in mind that I update my website constantly, and only the on-line version is going to be the most accurate and up-to-date.

You do NOT need my permission, if you follow the preceding, to use my TECHNICAL material in many ways, but if you have any questions, you may e-mail me.   e-mail 

One of the things that REALLY ticks me off, is misquoting me; and even more-so, is modifying my articles, or parts of them, and then claiming them as YOUR work.  I  WILL pursue you LEGALLY for MONETARY and other damages if you plagiarize from my articles!  This is NOT an idle threat!

CREATIVE COMMONS are two words that describe a way for a copyright holder (that's ME!) to grant YOU permission for MY WORK to be copied, distributed, or adapted...IF....certain conditions are met, that is, 'Some Rights Reserved'.     So, to keep this simple:  You may use my work if you keep my name with it, and you LINK to my original work (and modifications or additions or comments by you are prominently so-noted), and if such are not misleading to those who might read or see my material.  You may use my material ONLY for non-commercial purposes, unless you have MY permission.  Creative Commons does NOT grant you unlimited rights; in many instances you NEED APPROVAL FROM ME.

If you have a website, & your page where you have placed something from MY website (or a hyperlink to my website, which is always appreciated!) has advertisements that pay you income if folks reading your website click on those ads, I DO NOT consider your webpage to be commercial use, so I do NOT restrict your use of my material on such a page, so long as your usage is within the rest of my above and below information on my Copyrights.

Keep  in  mind  that  I  frequently  update  articles  on  this  website, sometimes every day.  This is important if you use a search engine that saves pages on the date they scanned them and doesn't update pages until they are next scanned; and who knows when that is (no matter the coding I use to try to get their robots to do it more often). An OLD scan MIGHT or MIGHT NOT be listed as 'cached'.    It is best to go directly to this website. 

 I suggest you Bookmark (may be called 'Favorites') the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at right now. 
The HOMEPAGE to Bookmark (or, Favorites) is
Revision/Editing dates are listed at the bottom of ALL pertinent pages/articles and I always show a revised date in this Technical Articles List Page if the revision is important.  The
homepage contains access to MANY things NOT on, nor accessible from this Technical Articles List page you are now looking at. 
Going from the homepage to this article list (via the link at the bottom of the homepage, that is, the LIST of articles) will 100% of the time give you the LATEST version of the article.    Please pay attention to what I am saying in this paragraph!

I request that errors or omissions on this website be reported to me, and such are welcomed.  That includes helpful comments!  (Even UNhelpful comments!) (except complaints about fonts and colors and verbosity!)

 Since my technical articles are © copyrighted, reading and use beyond this point constitutes an implicit acceptance of my terms and conditions!!!

Our bikes are getting old; the oldest Airheads are now officially regarded as ANTIQUES.  You can NOT rely on just any BMW dealership for repair work, nor for the proper parts and parts numbers.  Dealership personnel may well NOT have the proper knowledge nor background.  DO strongly consider independent repair centers, especially ones that participate on LISTS & FORUMS. 
I DO recommend certain shops, and individuals, upon request.  Especially see my pages 78A and 78B, below.

CHECK MORE THAN ONE SOURCE FOR INFORMATION, PARTS, AND WORK.  BMW sometimes has incorrect part numbers, and sometimes ships the wrong parts or poorly made parts.  Be careful when ordering from companies, foreign or domestic, that may not be selling genuine or REALLY equivalent BMW parts.  
BMW has published ERRORS!  These published errors get compounded (passed along) when re-published, by such as Clymers or Haynes!  In some instances I DO have "corrections to Clymers or Haynes, etc"  type of information on this site.

If you cannot easily find what you want in my website from searching manually, then click here:  SEARCH 
That page has information on HOW to search, plus the actual search function.   The search engine for this website is VERY good, but if it does not work for you, you probably have settings in your computer that are restricting the search engine.

Airhead, K, and household things to sell OR TRADE (AND...things I want):    Click!

"There is always a greater idiot."

 Make something idiot proof and you will eventually see a demonstration of this saying.

A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof
 is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools.

"The measure of a man's character is what he would do if he knew he
never would be found out." - Baron Thomas Babington Macauley

"An expert is someone who has made all the mistakes which can be made,
in a very narrow field." --Niels Bohr

"...You cannot prove a vague theory wrong. Also, if the process of computing the
consequences is indefinite, then with a little skill any experimental results can be
made to look like the expected consequences." Richard Feynman, 1964

There are three kinds of men:
The ones that learn by reading. The few who learn by observation.
The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence.
- Will Rogers

"We have all heard that a million monkeys banging on a million typewriters will
eventually reproduce the entire works of William Shakespeare. Now, thanks to the
Internet, we know this is not true."
-Robert Silensky

"There is no practical reason to create machine intelligences indistinguishable
from human ones. People are in plentiful supply. Should a shortage arise, there are
proven and popular methods for making more."

Under democracy one party always devotes its chief energies
to trying to prove that the other party is unfit to rule
--and both commonly succeed, and are right...
-H.L. Mencken

E-mailing snowbum:  CLICK!

What's with that lamp, above? 
Interested in the yearly SuperTech Weekend?
Click HERE for details!



Always something new around here!

All the technical information on this site is: ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

If you want to help maintain this website:  DONATING



Don't trust a mechanic without an attitude. Folks who know how to do things have opinions, & opinions aren't changed easily.


Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum gets OFF and RUNNING!


Temporary'll never know what is HERE!




Nerdy Stuff!

Picking up a downed motorcycle; and, a few things about side-stands

My 1984 R100RT bike, parts & many special tools, was sold.   The present owner and I have shared this bike in the past.

Hyperlink to a humorous article on this website, 'A Winter Tale': CLICK!

All the technical information on this site is:  

If you want to donate to help defray costs, click: DONATING
That page also has information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone....and MORE.

BMW numbers its motorcycle (and cars!) parts and service, ETC., by GROUPS and sub-groups.  A .pdf file showing all of these is available if you click on this: 

Our Sidecar rig:

New to Internet Mailing Lists? New to BMW riding & BMW people? please click here & read the short article!!  

military folks

Snowbum lives at  Lake Tahoe,  California. Click

Deer Whistles R45 & R65 OWNERS Manual Not all that proficient at editing your E-mails?  Want to know how to do that, and a lot more?   Special symbols?  Foreign computers?  ETC:  CLICK

Long Distance Touring

Model Differences over the years


SEARCH for anything on this website: CLICK!

Who the HELL is Snowbum?

A FEW German words to know

  For SALE...and WANTED:  CLICK! Getting started:
Do your own motorcycle maintenance!


Buying or Selling a motorcycle


Photo gallery #1

Photo gallery #2

Photo gallery #3

Photo gallery #4

 Fleischer's Service??

For newer BMW POLICE bikes:
Parts information; Technical information, bulletins.


Photographs,story, our trip around the USA


An Essay on Loud Pipes, etc.

The Paradox of our age, by the Dalai Lama

Prostate Cancer;  REAL FACTS!  
Kept up-to-date!

Motorcycling to Alaska 

Join the Airheads Beemer Club!

Maintenance schedules for all BMW motorcycles (even the C1 scooters) available on the Internet:

My Airhead schedule is on MY site, and is much better. CLICK!



 I suggest you "bookmark" (Favorites) the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at right now. 
The HOMEPAGE is   
homepage contains access to many things NOT on, and NOT accessible from the Technical Articles list page you are now looking at.  Going from the homepage to an article, via the articles list link at the bottom of the homepage will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of the article.

FUEL System in your Airhead motorcycle

(An article on fuel mileage, in depth, is #81)

1.  Fuel filters, petcocks, gas caps (and venting problems), fuel hose, tank & seat fitting; clamshell
     models choke setting,  rev.  08/06 /2014 
     Additional information is in article #12A

2.  Luftmeister Auxiliary Fuel Tanks  rev. 10/09/2012

3.  Carburetors PART 1, overhaul; GENERAL NOTES, HINTS, floats testing leaking
     tops & dome inserts, tricky enrichener discs/shafts assemblies, Bing
     Independent Float Kits (see 5 below for all those details), ETC.   rev. 10/09/2013

         Be sure to read article 6, below, yes, even if you do not have a /5.

4.  Bing Carburetor PART 2, overhaul; GENERAL NOTES, high altitude JETTING
     changes tuning, hard-starting (some), ETC.     rev. 10/09/2013

5.  Bing dual-independent float kit                 rev.  02/08/2014 

6.  Early Bing CV Carburetors as on R75/5, and R75/5 idle problems, ETC!         rev. 10/03/2013
     This article has some information that applies to ALL Bing CV carburetors,
     so I suggest you READ IT!

7A.  Synchronizing Carburetors; the whole story, in awful depth.  08/03/2014     

7B.  Throttle & clutch cables & throttle cams & gears. Speedometer and tach cables.
         Speedometer cable rubber boot at transmission. Control assembly perches

            rev. 08/08/2014

8.  Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum, OFF and
      RUNNING!      rev. 06/23/2013

9.  R80 fuel mileage problems; R80 airbox modifications.        rev.    10/13/2012

10.  Tuning Intake and Exhaust systems            rev. 11/28/2012

11.  Removing & plugging the Pulse Air and Evaporative emissions & fuel shutoff systems
        (also: how they work)        rev.  12/13/2013

12A.  Fuel System:  Tank cleaning;  premium vs regular; additives; TEL; alcohol;
          fitting other tanks & seats. Throttle and choke cables.  Fuel hose.
          rev:  07/21/2014
          See article #1, above!
>>>>An article that describes Lead Substitutes, in depth, is:  valves.htm  which is article 60, sub-section 5
>>>>An article that delves deeper into control cables, is:  controlcables.htm which is article 7B.

12B.  Bing carburetors that piss:  weeps, leaks onto your boot, onto the ground,
          floor, garage, grass, wherever.   rev.  11/04/2012 

12C.  The K & N air filter, the UNI air filter, stock air filters, .....etc.    rev. 11/20/2013  

13.  The Dell'Orto Carburetor                              rev.  09/24/2012
        Huge amount of information on how ALL types of carburetors operate,
        especially needle/slide types, but also vacuum types and in particular
        the Dell'Orto carburetors.  SPECIFIC information on Dell'Orto settings for
        Airheads; where to obtain parts.  A link to an article on converting an
        Airhead to use the Dell'Orto (only the R90S CAME with them).  Links to
        other carburetor articles of considerable value.  Links to the factory DellOrto
        manuals (ON this website!) are also here.   There are MANY sketches/photoss
        in this article.  Allow TIME to load up if you are on a slow connection.

Didn't find what you wanted in the above FUEL SYSTEM articles area?
   Use the search engine:   SEARCH

Gasoline's:  This is not an article by me, but a link.   Truly curious? Technically minded?   This long article describes octane, gasoline, leaded fuel, unleaded fuel, additives.   There are interesting things here and there in this article, from which you could also get to other parts/versions by re-arranging the URL.

All the technical information on this site is: ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

If you want to donate to help maintain this website:  DONATING

Electrical System:

14.    How to buy & use test lamps and multimeters, basics+.  rev.  08/11/2014          

14A.  De-mystifying & Troubleshooting BMW Airhead Boxer Motorcycle Electric
          systems; includes battery and charging information        rev. 03/11/2014
          Lots of good basic electricity information here; plus troubleshooting. 
          Also see article 15.

14B.   Critique of the ChiTech Electrics School Manual; plus some tech
            information  rev.  07/31/2013 

14C.   Here is a hyperlink to an article that describes how relays work.   This is
           being listed, as Joe's ('Cuda) article which is much more pointed towards
           actual Airheads usage, is no longer available on the website.
           But, this linked article DOES have just about everything you need to know
           about how relays, including Bosch/DIN numbered pins types, actually work:

  ***NOTE:  the last time I tried that link, it asked for sign-in, but after a few seconds, that disappeared
                    and the article did appear.

15.     Electrical hints and problems; descriptions of functions, ETC.     rev.  07/30/2014

15-A.   Alternators:  WHY 3 phases?  The STOCK Bosch, substitutions, ETC.
            rev. 11/01/2012

15-B.   Troubleshooting the Alternator, Charging Problems       06/15/2013

15-C.   Aftermarket Alternators:  installation, capability, performance

             rev. 09-17-2012

15-D.  Really BIG alternators on Airheads                 rev. 07/26/2013  

15-E.  Why do alternator rotors fail?  How to replace a bad rotor    rev. 10/13/2012 

16-A.   Starter & Starting Problems;  Valeo to Bosch; Bosch to Valeo;  FIT problems;;

            starter relays; solenoids     Rev. 08/11/2014

16-B.  Troubleshooting the Starting System & variations.      rev. 03/30/2013

17.    Alternator rotors, stators, brushes, cautions, DETAILS.   rev. 08/03/2014

18.    Diode Boards & Grounding Wires; information on testing power diodes)
         rev. 04/09/2013  

19.    Alternator 'GEN' lamp circuit & resistor (AND, possibly LED) modifications.    rev. 02/02/2014 

20.    Testing Voltage Regulators; high output and/or adjustable regulators)
          rev. 10-15-2012

21.    Servicing a Bosch Mechanical Voltage Regulator (INCLUDING the /2)
          rev. 05/18/2011

22.    Making adjustable the Bosch & Wehrle ELECTRONIC METAL CAN Voltage
          Regulators rev.  11/07/2012

23A.   Increasing the voltage output of the Wehrle PLASTIC voltage regulator  
            (for tinkerers and nerds)  10/15/2012

23B.  Schematic diagram of one version of the electronic voltage regulator  
           rev. 10/15/2012 

24A.  Lamps.  Adding relays, lamp substitutions, larger headlights,
          MODULATORS, sockets, updating /5 headlight, heavier wire, LED's, HID, ETC. 
          rev. 02/26/2014
see also 24-C and 34.

24B.  How the headlight switch & relay works.  Understanding the finer details of
           information in article 24A.          rev. 10/03/2012

24C.  Headlight modulators. Federal Law. California Law. Technical details. 
          Links to sites with the laws and regulations, + ALL types of motorcycle
          lighting; headlight brightness, links.  rev 10/02/2012 

25.    Replacing a 5 speed neutral switch (& selecting the correct switch)
          rev. 04/02/2013

26.    Metric & American Wires, Colors, Bosch wiring Codes, wire sources; information
          about schematic diagrams.     rev. 06/29/2013

27.    Installing an accessory electrical outlet, precautions, etc.    rev.  05/06/2012

28.    Ignition Theory; Spark Ignition Systems.   rev. 03/09/2014

29.    Ignition Timing; Automatic Advance Units; points; condensers, amplifiers,
          single spark plug Airheads; advance units applicable to single OR dual plug
          airheads; COILS, etc!      rev. 08/05/2014

30.    IGNITION:  Points; Timing lights;  Ignition Modules; Ignition Canister (rebuilding yourself or
         sending them out); Coils;
Spark Plug Suppressor Caps; Dyna & Boyer Ignitions;  

         rubber sealing strip; sources for modules & Hall sensors; testing & troubleshooting (including HIGH IDLE
         RPM); Points Boosters/Amplifiers. 
rev. 02/14/2014 
         Some of the Hall sensor information applies to the K and Oilhead bikes.

         I highly recommend you read both #29 and #30, above; as an understanding of
         both articles may well be needed if you are contemplating changes or repairs.

        Here is a link to an article on the diagnosis and repair of the Oilhead Hall
        Effect ignition sending unit.  This article has some explanations & details that
        may help you understand the Airhead electronic ignition.

31.   Dual Plugging (and for all Airheads, discussion on milling heads,

        shaving cylinders, etc.)   rev. 09/26/2012

32.   SPARK PLUGS; threaded holes; torques; ANTISEIZE (OR NOT), spark plug
         caps & wire assemblies; resistor & non-resistor spark plugs for Airheads
         & K-bikes.      rev. 03/14/2013

33.  Ampmeters (ammeters) v. Voltmeters (and voltmeter problems)   rev. 04/27/2014

34.  Adding Running Lamp Function to Turn Signals  rev. 04/27/2013 

35.  Rejuvenating a battery?  Filling a new 'flooded' battery &  initializing properly;
       other battery types;
which battery to purchase; sources; usage; chargers (SMART or not); peculiarities. 
       Charging voltages.   How to Load Test a
Battery; ETC.      rev: 05/19/2014 

36.   Accessing the headlight bucket on RS/RT, cleaning the headlamp/glass,
        aiming the headlight   rev. 10/03/2012

37.   Slash 5 (/5) starter relay 'cricket' noise & starting problem.  Slash 5
         (/5) bikes with stock starter relays SHOULD RECEIVE THIS MODIFICATION
         rev. 10/14/2012

37A.  Tachometers:   connections, wire colors, retrofitting to earlier models;
          checking calibration (mechanical OR electronic type)     rev. 02/13/2014 

          NOTE:  DIY clock repairs:

37B.  Broken brake light switches (front & rear); stiff K bike throttles for 1985.
          rev. 05/21/2011

38A.  CAN-Bus, OBD-II, ....what is this??.   How it works.  What about the future?
          rev. 08/16/2014 

Regarding section 38B onwards to the end of 38x:  
I have obtained schematic diagrams posted on this website from a variety of sources.  NONE are from the Chitech BMW Electric School Manual, as you can purchase that manual (which covers 1955 to 1990+) but many schematics in it are very difficult to read, some are quite fuzzy but I DO recommend you purchase that manual, see my URL page for how to obtain a copy.   That manual is almost a must for Airhead owners.  There is a critique, with some corrections, that I made for that manual:  chitechelmnl.htm

I PROBABLY HAVE every schematic diagram for every Airhead (& most other models to 1996 or so), but some need interpretation.  My collection includes (probably) all of the World's versions, so there are literally HUNDREDS of diagrams,  including accessories ...such as the early Airheads when they were available with Avon fairings!  Diagrams includes those for heated grips, special lighting, & Authorities (Police) models.    Because there are CONSIDERABLE similarities between various models,   enough of these schematics are on this website to enable you to work on your bike.

If you need to contact me for a specific diagram, or perhaps something is not clear to you in a schematic on my website, ask on the Airheads list or K bike or tech-list, as appropriate, FIRST.  I may or MAY NOT see your query if you post to the BMWMOA forums.  When you post to a LIST, I would like to know if you want a schematic for the main frame diagram, or engine or some sub or accessory item.  I need to know your BMW model, its year, and if it is a USA or Euro.  It would be very helpful if you knew the model code that BMW uses for your motorcycle.  If you do not know the model code, DO furnish the full serial number or VIN number.  ONLY if you are not on one of those LISTs (and I may reply with WHY NOT?) should you directly contact me at:    CLICK!  
Keep in mind that personal inquiries to me take up a lot of my time, and benefit ONLY YOU; while answers on a LIST benefit all members of that list.

Sometimes questions you may have will be answered by referring to my electrical hints article #15, or some other article in the Electrical section of my website.

Regarding AIRHEADS electrical schematic diagrams:
The R80G/S is similar to the R45, R65 and R80ST. 
The R65, ST, GS & G/S type of instrument pods will be similar, or nearly so. 
RS and RT may be identical to each other. 
The R75/5 will use the same diagram as a R50/5 and R60/5. 
The R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S  will all be very similar. 
The /7 is somewhat similar to the last of the /6 series.
The /6 and later with the early style-type of pod (pod NOT like the R65, ST, G/S, GS)
    will generally have those pods in common; differences are few, and are noted in my website.

In general, a lot of the wiring and circuits for 1970 models are similar to even 1995 models!  

This same sort of schematic similarity is found on Classic K bikes; which have only a few differences
such as lighting, whether 3 or 4 cylinders (ignition is primary schematic difference); and for the fuel
injection computer, whether Jetronic or Motronic.   ABS?  Then whether ABS1 or ABS2.

      Here is a link to a German website, that has a LOT of Airhead (and some R1100 oilhead and other) electrical schematic
      diagrams.   You will have to snoop around a bit (probably) and click on the Shaltplane or Shaltplaene.
      This website keeps getting re-arranged and the actual address for the diagrams to
be selected by you keep varying.  
      Might  be best to just go to the homepage:  and start from there.  But, you can try
      the addresses below, it may work!
      Keep in mind that these are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA or other non-German-shipped country bike.
      Use these schematics in conjunction with what you find on my website.  There is a LOT of information besides schematics
     on this German website! 
The site contains information on a WIDE variety of subjects, not just electrical items.

NOTE:  Some of the schematics on BMW's OWN CD of schematics, for early eighties bikes, are wrong in some areas. 
              This also  MAY apply to 1 or 2 of the schematics for these later bikes (after 1980) on the snowbum website, but I
               MAY have edited out the errors.  The main areas you might notice that are wrong on BMW's diagrams are those
               showing IGNITION POINTS instead of ignition module, etc., for the particular models.


Links for more electrical schematics, etc., are found in article #80, below.

Some BMW schematics will show things NOT on YOUR bike, which were special equipment or added accessories.

38B.   Miscl. Electrical schematics for Hazard flasher system, fold-out
            fog/driving lights, heated grips, VDO instruments.  Replacing a /6 left-side
            handlebars switch.  Substitute voltmeters and clocks.  rev.  05/09/2013  

38C.   Schematic diagrams in three formats: .gif; .pdf; and .bmp;
           for R90S, R60S, R75/6, R90/6; for 1975 & into 1976.          10/13/2012

38C+.  Schematic diagram for 1974 model, /6 series, EURO, type 0271 

38D.  Schematic diagram for the 1978 Airheads, as .pdf

38E.  Schematic diagram for the /5 electricals, last model, fused, .pdf
38F.  Schematic Diagram for both early and late /5.  Early model had no
          fuses.  Set your browser to expand the image as needed, it WILL be clear.

38G.  Schematic diagram, 1981 R100, R100CS, as .pdf 
          SIMILAR to many of this era.  
          Schematic diagram, 1981-1984.   A different type of sketch than the above one.
This is a schematic done by someone in Germany.  Compare this to the above one.
Legend for the numbered and lettered "items" in this schematic: legend

38H.  Schematics & wires colors diagrams & descriptions for 1981-1985 R65,
           R65LS, R45, R80ST, ETC.     .jpg, and .pdf       rev. 10/13/2012    
Schematic for the above bikes, but EURO version:   CLICK

38I.   Schematic diagram for 1979-1980 R100RS, series 0427 as shipped to various
          countries, full base diagram.  .pdf format

38J.  Main lighting diagram (only)
.   .pdf format, covers above and into the early

38K. PDF diagrams for R100GSPD:

38L.  Schematic diagram and Legend, 1989 and later R100RS/R100RT, USA,
          pdf format, TWO pages

38M.   Replacing a /5 ignition switch with a round barrel type switch:

Here is a link for a KIT to basically do a barrel switch installation:

38N.   Radio codes:  Key OFF.  PRESS and HOLD "M"; turn key on.  If code does not display,
           then contact dealer or radio shop.   You should have written the code down when you
           purchased the bike! came with it.



Electrical contact cleaners and treatments are in article 73.

Mechanical?  Electrical?  Stuff I'm not sure where else to put these things?

39A.  F, OT, S, and Z marks on your Flywheel (clutch carrier);
          re-marking, alignment, degreeing camshafts....ETC   rev.  5/21/2014
          For Automatic Timing Units, in depth, see article 29.

39B.   Mis-adjusted carburetors and/or sticky automatic timing units can cause
            high rpm, typically after full warmup.  See article #30, which has a section
           on just this problem.

39C.   How to safely transport your motorcycle (like in a truck or trailer, etc.)

39D.   1974 and later Instrument housing covers, screws, broken inserts, etc:

39E.    Buried traffic light detection loops; bike triggering problems with them.

39F.    NERDY'll never know what is HERE

39G.   /5 instruments...and article on disassembly and repairs, etc:

                     Also See Article 48


I suggest you "bookmark" (Favorites) the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at right now. 
At the bottom of the HOMEPAGE there is a DATE for the last revision.   Revision/Editing dates are ALSO listed at the bottom of NEARLY ALL OTHER pages/articles.  
The homepage contains access to things NOT on, nor accessible from the Index of Technical Articles list page you are now looking at.  Going from the homepage to an article, via the link at the bottom of the homepage will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of the article.


Mechanical Systems, Miscellaneous, and 'other stuff':

40.  Setting to do it correctly.  ALSO: What happens when
        a valve comes apart and tries to destroy the engine.    rev. 08/21/2013
After reading this,  I recommend you read article #60 section 1; and
       60-6 and 60-5; all are below.

41.   Overheating, excessive idle time, etc.               rev. 09/27/2012       

42.  The pre-1970 slinger service; including the /2 slinger service (yeah, yeah a /2),
        rev. 10/14/2012

43.  Transmission input (clutch) splines, throwout bearing, clutch arm cleaning,
         lubrication &  inspection, adjusting swing arm.  Rev. 04/28/2013.
See also: CLUTCH article,  Section 60, item 9, below...which has extensive
         information on the throw-out bearings, and everything "clutch".
         BOTH these articles should be read!  See #7B about control cables.

44.  Maintaining the paintwork, aluminum, windscreen & helmet visor/shield;
       how to drill plastics safely; how to repair cracked luggage; how to repair
       fairings.    rev.  10/23/2013
        Article 73 has information on products to use to maintain plastic visors,
        shields, ETC.     Also See article 75

45.  Rear Wheel Splines; Rear Drive Output Splines; Rear Drive Oil Leaks;
        Replacing a Rear Drive Left Seal, Inner seal, Nose seal; Oil Leaks with
        Drum Brakes; Leaking oil drain plugs; Monolever & Paralever Cardan
        Bearings; Rear Drive overhaul, Rivets, Wheel Cup;....ETC.            Rev. 04/01/2014

46.  Exhaust pipe finned (spider) nuts; recommendations for exhaust replacements     rev. 09/27/2012

47.  Driveshaft Bolts, Washers, Torque, tools   rev. 03/29/2014

48.  Ring & pinion gears, ratios, speedometers/odometers, instrument pod repairs,
        instrument numeral colors, rpm, road speeds, numeral colors     rev. 08/06/2014

               also see article 39G

49.  Oil Transfers; oil/water moving someplace (or leaks).  Filling the driveshaft.
        rev. 10/12/2012 

50A.  Oiling system; oil consumption; thermostat; cooler; pressure bypass valve
          in the filter canister area; remote and other oil filter kits, ETC. rev. 10/12/2012

50B.  MORE on the BMW Airhead Oiling System:  Sketches, descriptions; caps;
          thermostats; oil breathers.    Rev. 07/14/2014

50C.  Oil Pans; oil pan gaskets; oil pan threads, oil capacity; dipsticks;
          oil pickups, WINDAGE.  
rev. 02/13/2014

50D.  Oil Coolers;  including installation.       09/24/2012   

51A.  Oil & filter change.  'Reading filters'. The "$2000 O-ring" ($3500 if you ruin
          your crankshaft).  Thermostat covers; LOTS more!
          INCLUDING spin-on oil filter conversions.  BMW airhead motorcycle Oil and
          Filter Changes; etc.  rev.  08/02/2014

51B.  Oil filters, canisters, ETC.   Information on changing your filter, types
           of oils for your airhead, oil additives; gasoline additives
            Rev.  03/12/2014

51C.  Oil lubrication tech; oil recommendations, ZDDP; synthetics, etc.  
          Airheads, K-bikes, etc.     Rev. 07/16/2014 

51D.  Oil viscosities, viscosity indexes, engine oils, gear oils, suspension/fork fluids, shock absorber fluids,
           SAE, SUS, Cst, some ZDDP values.    BMW factory recommendations for viscosities.   Rev. 08/04/2014   

52.  Pinging (Pinking); LUGGING; piston detonation.  Causes, effects, cures/fixes.
           Rev. 04/05/2014  

53.   Brakes; all-about them.  Rebuilding ATE MC.   SS lines.  Conversions/upgrades.    rev.  08/06/2014    

54.  Wheels, Tires, Axles, Hubs, Bearings, Steering Head, Forks, Seals/spacers,
        tires, dampers, ETC!

        Section 1:  19" wheel recall      rev. 05/03/2011

        Section 2:  Wheel spoke lacing and alignment of hub/rim   rev. 04/06/2013   

        Section 3.  Tires, spacers,  wheels, balancing of wheels/tires; hints; LARGE
                             VARIETY OF STUFF HERE.  rev. 04/17/2013
   Also contains info on
                             swapping various years/models of wheels (except Lester's, see
                             Section 7 below). I suggest that you also read Section 5, below.

        Section 4:  Wheel bearing preload & servicing wheel bearings.  Some other
                             wheel information also.  
rev.  05/07/2014
                            see Section 9, below  

        Section 5:  Tire tests, reports, recommendations.  Hydroplaning;
                             tire width top hat spacers; nitrogen; selecting tires (things you never knew);

                             rev. 04/23/2014
                             I suggest you read Section 3 above and Section 6 just below!
                             A LOT more tire information will also be found in Section 12, below;
                             including a section on vibration/thrumming, etc.

        Section 6:  Tubeless versus tubes.     rev. 07/04/2014  

        Section 7:  Lester wheels                rev.  09/04/2013  

 Section 8A:  Steering dampers; shock absorbers & springs.   rev. 10/14/2012

        Section 8B:   Ikon and Koni shock absorbers spring chart; a pdf file

        Section 9:  Airhead Wheel Bearing Clinic++, BMWMOA National Rally,
                             July 2005; critique of BMW-ON magazine articles of 2004.
                             Updating information.
   rev: 04/15/2013
                                  Also see 54, Section 4, above

 Section 10A.   Front forks internals description, alignment, stiction, braces,
                                  gators, cleaning & lubricating (or replacing) steering
                                  bearings; springs.  In-depth discussion of STICTION & setting
                                  fork sag.  Hints regarding front fork internals.  Modifications. 
                                  Adjusting swing arm bearings.      rev.   04-11-2014

Section 10B.  Front Forks:  Oil filling amounts; pre-Airheads, Airheads,
                                 K1, K75, K100, K1100

        Section 10C.  Instability; weaving, wobbling, tank slappers; the REAL information.
                                 Rev. 09/09/2013

        Section 11.  Hyperlink to Anton's website wheel balancing article

        Section 12.  TIRE REPAIRS.  TIRE PRESSURES.  Studding.  Includes a section
                               on vibration/thrumming, etc.            rev. 07/02/2013 


55.  Maintenance Schedule   rev. 09/20/2013 

56.  Cold Weather Starting   rev. 09/23/2012 

57.  Noise Silencing Pads For The Cylinder Fins   rev. 10/13/2012 

58.  Importing a motorcycle; EPA, DOT & Customs    rev. 10/04/2012

     rev. 04/07/2014

59B.  Emergency Shifting tools for 5 speed transmissions         Rev. 08/28/2012  


       Section 1:  Disassembly & assembly:  heads, pistons, rings, cylinders, break-in;
                            Helicoils;  Spigots (intake stubs); Timeserts; cylinder studs; pulled threads, ETC.
                            rev. 07/08/2014  
You may be interested in reading articles 40; 60-5, and 60-6

       Section 2:  Flywheel (& also Clutch Carrier) removal/replacement WARNING;
                         MAIN SEAL & O-ring, oil pump & its cover and seal.  Rod bolts.
                         Re-installation of Flywheel, seal installation photos.
                         Factory bulletin on new style seals.   Front crank bearing carrier.
Grabby clutch, vibrations, hard shifting, and idle rpm change with
                         clutch lever use due to excessive end-play.
                         rev. 08/03/2014

       Section 2A:  Lightened flywheel information         rev. 10/09/2012    

       Section 3:   CYLINDERS, all about, plus shims/gaskets     rev. 07/25/2014

       Section 4:  Pistons (including swapping heads-cylinders-pistons), rings, pins,
                           clips, keepers,
decarboning.   rev. 06/13/2013

        Section 5:  Valves, valve seats; leaded fuels; guides, valve springs, aftermarket
                            valves, noisy valves, bead-blasting,  ETC.   rev. 07/25/2014

                            You may be interested in reading article 40, 60-1, and 60-6

        Section 6:  Rocker arms, rocker arm shafts and bushes/bearings, valve gear, pushrod tubes, cylinder
                            heads.  Aligning the /5 valve gear.    rev. 08/03/2014

You may be interested in reading articles 40, 60-1, and 60-5

         Section 7:  Camshafts, broken cam tips, cam sprockets, lifters (followers), alternator & cam
                             seals, crank nose bearing.  ZDDP.   Sports Cam installations, duration, timing, etc.
rev.  08/05/2014

                                BE SURE TO SEE SECTION 60, SUB-SECTION 2, ABOVE.

        Section 8:  Replacing pushrod tubes & seals;  Pushrods; Valve cover studs;
                            sealing cylinders.       rev. 08/12/2014 

         Section 9:  Clutch: arm, flywheel, carrier, bolts, upgrades, throw-out

                              bearings.  Cables, stuck clutch, clutch lever, lever
                              lever bushing.  Preventing broken transmission ears.
                              Adjustments.  Rev.  08/15/2014
                              I recommend that you also read article #43!

61.  Long Distance Touring         rev. 08/11/2014 ;

62.  Timing Chain; sprockets; guides, wear problems, etc ...replacing, etc.  rev. 08/10/2014
        Use this article with the cams article, #60, subsection 7

63.   U-joint Phasing Photos, Paralever Driveshaft models and any driveshaft
         with Universal Joints.    rev. 04/06/2014

64.   Reynolds:  Ride-off center-stands; luggage racks; tour rests, bag mounts, trailer hitches, etc.
         rev:   12/20/2013

65.  TOOLS (very extensive information)  rev. 08/11/2014

66.  Making a useful hydraulic jack, cheap    rev. 10/04/2012

67A.  Engine, Frame, and other ID numbers.   How to read these
          numbers, etc., how to identify YOUR BIKE.    rev. 07/02/2014

67B.  Model differences over the years.    rev. 04/13/2014

68A.  Part numbers for hardware and MANY other parts.  Not just metal parts.
          Sources not in
          Locking methods discussion, ETC.  rev.   01/21/2014

68B.  The ROUNDEL; sizes, part numbers; BMW COMPANY HISTORY--IN DEPTH
           rev. 02/11/2014

69.  Parts Coding Symbols.  How to read the symbols on ETK, fiche, etc.
        rev.  10/12/2012

70.  BMW Paint Codes 1970-?    Information on paints, powder coating,
        sources, colors, codes, etc.         
rev. 01/21/2013

71A.  Torque Specifications & problems; conversion factors, using torque
           wrenches. Calibration checks.  
rev. 10/15/2012

71B.  Torque values for various models.       rev. 03/10/2014   

          Read AFTER reading 71A

Changing torque wrench range; adjustment correction using extensions
          rev. 10/19/2012

72.  Formulas & conversion factors    rev. 10/09/2012  

73.  Chemicals, Oils (but NOT engine, gearbox, final drive), Additives for oil and gasoline,
       Greases, Electrical Contact Treatments, Antiseizes, Loctite, Sealants, Waxes, etc.     
        rev.  08/16/2014 

74.  Maintaining your leather items           rev. 10/08/2012      

75A.   Luggage, Windshields, Locks & Keys, Instruments, mirrors, etc.
        rev.  01/22/2014    

        See #44 on how to repair cracked luggage, maintain plastic, etc. 
See #73 on products to use.
See REFERENCES  "L" for luggage for more information.
        See K bike section

75B.   Albert mirrors            

76.   Miscellaneous:    Fork filling;  wobbles, weaves & tank slappers
        oversize drain plugs & washers; forks; side & centerstands; clothing,
        heated clothing. ETC.   rev. 05/09/2013
Information on seats interchangeability is in article #12A
        See 76B for more on weaves and tank slappers.

76.   Those pesky easy to lose WEDGES that fit at the handlebar controls!
         How to make one.  This is a link to a sketch in .pdf.
         The part numbers for these wedges are:   32-72-2-072-233; 32-72-1-232-929;

          and 32-72-1-242-626

77.   Modifications: Engine, Clutch, Suspension, Braking, transmission, etc....for
         performance, reliability, & even racing.  rev.  08/29/2013

78A.   Useful URL's and sources for BMW motorcyclists; groups, forums, parts, people,
           websites, companies, services.   Editing E-mail messages.  Printing or sending
           special characters from your
computer. Using foreign computers.
            Lane-Splitting in California
            rev. 01/03/2014

78B.    REFERENCES:   ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & information not in 78A nor 80.  Includes more
            URL's;  e-mail addresses; contacts & descriptions....where to get things, service, etc.
Rev. dates are not listed for this article

79.    Side-stands; Center-stands.  Stock and Aftermarket. 
 rev. 12/19/2013 

         ETC.  Not just BMW either.    rev.  06/08/2013
Also see article 78B.  

81.   Lousy Fuel mileage; horsepower to attain high speeds; discussion of  HP, Torque,
         RAM-AIR, &  LOTS MORE!           rev. 03/05/2014 

82A.   INSURANCE motorcycles and sidecar rigs; lots of things you probably did
           not think about, or know!  ALSO a section on negotiating with the insurance company.
                rev:  05/15/2014

82B.  What To Do (and NOT do) right away if you've been in a motorcycle
          accident. Advice from a Motorcyclist's Lawyer!

83.  Bob's 'sleeper' R75/5.   My radical supercharged R75/5     rev. 04/16/2013

84.  See 7B about control and other cables and problems.

85.  Foreign travel:  Using foreign computer keyboards:  see article 78A

You got this far, and STILL did not see what you wanted?
There is a SEARCH Page!  >>>CLICK this area 


Oilhead motorcycle section:

1.   ABS brakes problems?   Here is a link to an article on the R1100 and R1150 on how to reset the ABS:
          ALSO See 14a & 14b in the K-bike section, well below.

2.   Salvage yards, for oilhead parts, etc:  

3.   See article #30, above, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.
      An article dealing with a R1100RT sensor repair, will be found at

How to go about repairing the ignition sensors:

4.   R1100RT: LCD Temperature & Fuel Gauge Calibration; Fuel Sender Testing &
troubleshooting   rev. 10/13/2012.  

5.   Links to a website with good stuff for Oilheads, such as on the ABS system;
      TDC locating mandrel, ignition timing box, etc.    First, the main link:

This next link is to an article on the same website.   It is on the diagnosis and
       repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition sending unit.  
You may want to refer to my own extensive  IGNITION article

6.    Bleeding/servicing the integrated brakes may want to read these:

7.   Link to German website, with LOTS of Airhead (and some R1100 oilhead)
      electrical schematic diagrams.   Click on the Shaltplan, shown in red on that
      page, for your model:  

Keep in mind that these are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA
       or other non-German-shipped country bike.  Use these schematics in
       conjunction with what you find on my website. There is a LOT of information
       besides schematics on this German website.

8.  Death Rattle:  Does your 850, 1100, or 1150 Oilhead, 1994-2004, make an
     uncomfortable-to-hear rattle upon startup?  Hexheads too!
Article describes the fix, with photos.  The rear-view engine cut-away
      photo is a REAR-view of an Oilhead motor. The Hexhead tensioners are the
      same.  Note that the left tensioner assembly is located on top of the cylinder,
     "facing" downward, in a position that allows oil to drain out of the tensioner
      sleeve during shutdown. The right side tensioner assembly faces upward from
      the bottom, and IT remains full of oil during shutdown. This is why the
      tensioner that is typically repaired is the left side one.

9.  Hyperlink to a forum-type website.  Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead,
     Camhead, K.

10.  Hyperlink to an article on what belts were used, which to use, how to adjust
        them, & at what interval replace them, etc.

11.  Oilhead HINTS     rev.  10/12/2012

12.  Replacing an oil level sight glass rev. 10/14/2012

13.  Tool to lock flywheel and TDC locator:

14.  There is a new-style Teflon oil seal being used on ALL BMW motorcycles.
        I expect it will be used at more places for replacement purposes, over the years.
        The original Service Information bulletin is on this website:

15.  Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

16.  Control Cables problems.

Original owner's manuals (booklets) for R1200GS; K1200; K1300 series; F650GS;F800 series; S1000 series, etc.:
You may have to look for the owners booklets, BMW keeps changing the location on the website.  The above is a shortened DISPLAYED HERE link, but is a FULL link.  Allow to load up fully. When you see SERVICE at the top, click on it.
Allow to load, then click on the left side for Riders Manuals.

All the technical information on this site is:  

If you want to donate to help maintain this site:  DONATING
+ information on how I operate this website!
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Thanks for looking at them!

CLASSIC K-bike motorcycle section:
CLASSIC K-BIKES ARE K MODELS K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200

NOTE: Snowbum does not work on, nor have hardly much knowledge, about certain bikes, these are the K1300S; K1300R; S1000R; HP4; K1200S; K1200R; S675RR; K1600GT; K1600GTL; and K1300GT.  For those, you might be interested in the following website:     that appears to be a duplicate of

Snowbum is active on the K-BMW LIST:
  Forum style.  Classic K bikes.   Active, lots of opinions, watch for awhile to sort out who knows, who guesses, etc.  Snowbum isn't on this forum.  The so-called BIG LIST.  Has a section on tech. Lots of K bike stuff.  Snowbum participates some on the techlist.  The mainpage is seldom changed, that is, hardly ever anything added to it.
                                 BUT, the FORUMS are active.

K1100LT and K1100RS repair manual:

Classic K bikes model history, K1, K75, K100, K1100:
There are some things missing, and some that need embellishment, etc.   There were changes in the
rod lengths and pistons, the radiator got more fins, lots of little things also.  But, Anton's list is a good one.


1.  Starter sprag clutch problems in classic K bikes     rev.  04/21/2013  

2.  Hints, advice, parts, BMU---Bulb Monitoring Unit, etc.     rev.  06/15/2013

  A version of the K100 schematic:   K100 Schematic Diagram, pdf format

3B.    K100LT, entire schematic diagram of whole bike.   This is to a pdf, made
          directly from BMW's own information.  It is for the UK ABS version.
          In general, covers the 1987-1989 era, probably a bit more.    K100LT.pdf

3C.    This is the LEGEND for the above, 3B, schematic diagram:   LEGEND.docx
4.  Brake squealing, any model, and very especially the K75?...see article 53 which
      DOES include information for K75, & all classic K bikes, for that matter.
     That article also has a lot of information on bleeding the brakes!

5.  Salvage yard, for parts, etc.:  ( 973)-775-3495.
Some other salvage yards are listed in my references article (article 78-B). 
     You can also try:

6.  See article #30 ABOVE, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.  

7.  U-joint Phasing photos, any U-joint driveshaft system, including Paralever
       Driveshaft models           rev. 04/06/2014

8.  K bike instrument pod;  repairing & calibrating speedometer; clock modification
      for 12 hour clock indication; Radio codes; ETC.
     rev. 04/24/2013

9.  K bike fork oil requirements     rev. 10/07/2012                  

10.  Fitting handguards to a K1100LT  (and earliermodels) rev.   10/07/2012   

11.  Troubleshooting the LE-Jetronic classic K bikes (2 valve K75, 2 valve K100). 
        Register at:
HUGE amount of technical information, and even a step-by-step article, but
        you have to really search the site to find this stuff (especially by VOGEL) page/K100 troubleshooting Starting.pdf

12.   Front forks oil changing:  See #9, just above.  ALSO see
         article Section 54, sub- section 10B.  Also see 10A for fork alignment. 

13.  Changing Coolant on a Classic K bike, discussion about coolants, all the fun
        details (and more!). Heat insulation
under the tank, etc.    rev. 04/07/2013   

14A.   If you need to have a fuel injection computer or ABS computer brain repaired:
Lots of good testing advice here too!

            will get you the main page, lots of technical information there!

See above links, then Contact Tosi at:  
Highly recommended by several people.

            Here is a place in the Netherlands that does all sorts of modules/computer brains, etc.:

            BBA Re-manufacturing; 300 Myles Standish Blvd.; Tauntonk MA 02780
                      (866) 573-2740;  (508)-822-4490   
I have TWO reports that do NOT recommend these folks, and none
            that DO recommend.

14B.   If you are having ABS codes problems, before you jump to conclusions,
           remove both ABS relays, clean contacts and clean the relay connection
           spades too, and add contact cleaner to them.
  This is also good advice
           for the ABS main computer plug connections. Here are a couple of
           articles to look at:

Scan down for the ABS articles

15.      See Oilhead section, above, item #5, on the Hall devices.  That article has
           information applicable to the K bikes.
See my ignition.htm article too.

16.     Adjusting the steering head bearings on a K75, K100, K1100:

17.     Brake light switch problems....see article well above, #37B.  If you have a
          1985 K bike, and a stiff throttle,
also read that article 37B...yes, a brakes
          switch article!   Info is well down the article.

18.    Hyperlink to a forum-type website.  Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead,
          Camhead, K.    

19.   Locks, gas caps, KEYS, etc.......I have an article, #75, above, that covers all
         of this in some depth.

20.   See Airhead section article #30 regarding the ignition circuitry, lots of useful
        information on the Hall element, etc. The following article, while for a R1100RT
        oilhead, is useful for K bike owners; it is illustrated & is about replacing the
        Hall sensors for a R1100RT sensor repair, & is SIMILAR for a K bike:

If your Classic K-bike is having irregular ignition problems, and you can't find anything wrong
                      with the ignition, remove the valve cover, and check to be sure that the cover is grounded to
                      the engine by means of a coil spring that is mounted to a cam bearing mount. 

21.   Doing a rear main seal job is involved.   Here is a video of the procedure to R/R
        the main seal on a Classic K bike.  Useful for anyone wanting to know
        what/how in taking apart the bike....even if not doing a rear main seal job.
In GERMAN for sound. The mechanical support for the bike is flimsy in MY
        opinion.  They found one of the headers case you wonder about
        the exhaust pipe being 'shown'.

22.    Information for Classic K bikes, NOT just the K100.
         Many Service Bulletins here too: 

23.   A lot of K bike information.   Has all the wiring diagrams for  has a lot of
        information.  In German, but very useful!  Covers all the Classic K bikes (K1,
        K75, K100, K1100, K1200), & lots more.  Wiring diagrams are under Shaltpläne.

24.   How to replace an oil level sight glass    rev. 10/14/2012

25.   Service Information Bulletin SI-2630R:  failure to use all fuel in the fuel tank,
         whining noise from the fuel pump.   This is a link to a PDF file on this website.
The sketches are not very clear, so look at them with a critical eye!
If you can furnish a really nice clear copy of that bulletin, let me know.

26.  Engine oil, & lubrication in GREAT DEPTH:  see article 51-C, ABOVE

27.   Worn rear drive splines?  Bad U-joint?  Upgrade?
        see: drives.htm; and see videos below (all of them!)

        Doing a K75 rear drive input spline and driveshaft and swing arm lubrication?
           This is a link to a how-to video, it's in German, but you will understand it.  Note
            that normally one does not pull the swing arm, in this video I suspect it was done
            to replace the boot, and check the swing arm bearings.


Here are two videos on K75 and K100 rear drive spline servicing, Bruno's driveshaft
        and rear spline rebuilding, etc. 

28.   New style seal used on K bikes at the alternator drive:

Link to a 6 part video series on how to disassemble and reassemble a
          Classic K-bike, to do an input spline service.  Includes a lot of service
          and commentary on things the servicer found on this bike along the way.
          Lots of good hints.    Very complete, including the swearing. 

30.    Control cables problems

31.   Re-keying locks, especially fuel tank lock; problems with the cap; and other

         also:  see my article 75 in the Airhead section

32.    FUEL CAP on K bikes (and other bikes too). This is a video.   It covers R/R cap
          internals.  No information on keying locks.

NOTE:   The "kit" in the video, 16-11-9-062-461R was sourced from Bob's
            BMW.   The "R" means Bob's is selling a repair kit.  Be sure to get gasket
        see my article 75A also

33.    Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

NOTE!....Some of my Airhead articles are informative to K bike owners.  Examples are the References article (78B), which has information on driveshaft rebuilding and resources for many things; articles on the ignition, brakes, front forks, ETC.  Many other examples of useful articles in the Airheads sections.  Scattered in this long list of Technical Articles you are reading are stated references to Airheads articles that also apply to Classic K bikes, but I have probably missed a few. I suggest you look at the entire list of articles, and see what might apply to your Classic K bike.

I have a page that has some motorcycle (yes, some K bike stuff too) and personal stuff for sale (or TRADE!):    click here

Sidecar specific section:

(starting with my present rig, the tech stuff follows this)

Our present Sidecar rig: K1100LT-EML-GT2

This was previously Al Olme's sidecar rig.  I had it shipped to me from Minnesota by HaulBikes (also known as Daily Direct); whose service is very good (highly recommended by me, and many others, including dealers).  I removed the Police-type saddle, and Authorities radio trunk prior to Penny and my 2008 trip across the USA,  installing the stock seat and trunk.   The Police/Authorities items have been sold.  I  have City-cases, as well as Tour-bags and use whichever is appropriate. I often use the rig with the Tour-bag or City-case on the left (City-case on right makes for easier access).   On a long tour where I need every cubic inch of space when Penny is along, I use the Tour-bag on the right.  Specifications below are in brief, as I have done a LOT of modifications.

Tug wheels:  4.5 x 14" EZS.
Tug tires: 175/70-R14 rear, 165/70-R14 front (175 in future)
Sidecar wheel:  #300, 15" EML with 135R15 tire (or can be 135/80-R15) 
Front fork:  EZS Leading Link with floating brake discs.
Front shocks: Koni 7610-1282 shocks (modified by me).
 Brembo twin spot calipers on tug, dual front floating discs.
Floating calipers with torque arms. 
ABS system removed.
 Single disc rear brake uses Brembo two-piston 38 mm P108 caliper.
Rear master cylinder 16 mm Magura. 
 Brembo F05 sidecar disc brake plumbed to the rear tug braking system.
   Front wheel offset to right by 1-3/8".  Sidecar wheel lead 13-1/4". Toe-in 3/8".  
 The need for a steering dampener, hydraulic, my modifications, is quite minimal. 
R1100S modified hand-guards. 
 Hotel-quality rugs in chair and chair trunk. 
Multiple types of electrical outlets in chair. 
Way over-designed/over-built TOP, designed/made HERE...sheesh what a job!
  See #9 below.

Some specifications, including empty and loaded weights & dimensions;
plus a lot of SERVICE information for the EML sidecar, will be found on this website, HERE:

The SKUNK flag stands for Sidecars Up Nort Klub; 
Up Nort stands for anyplace Up North of someplace.   

Snowbum is active (and a moderator) on the SCT sidecar LIST:
Same for EML Group:

1A.   The good points, the bad points, literature and information: an overview of sidecaring basics
         rev: 03/28/2014

1B.    List of Sidecar groups on the Internet               rev: 10/14/2012       

1C.  Hyperlink for the Evergreen Council group training schedule for Basic &
         Advanced training:

1D.   Hyperlink to a website that has a lot of photos, videos, links, etc., about
         sidecar traveling, much is out of the USA, some videos, etc., are in English,
         but the whole site is fun to look through, and you could use Google translate:

1E.   German website, lots of interesting things....if you do not read German, put
         the URL into Google Translations.

***NOTE!   If you use Google CHROME browser, it automatically translates in some
                    instances (where you have set it up that way).

1F.   Source for Vintage sidecar items, numerous manufacturer's items here.

2.   Sidecar Technical stuff.  Links for manuals, mechanicals, photos, licensing.
       Photos &  modifications, subframes, mounts, EXTENSIVE info on alignment
       considerations; specific details/photos of R100RT-Ural rig mounts, etc.
      rev. 10/14/2012

3.   Sidecar resources: INCLUDING  setting up sidecars, how to drive one,
         resources for handicapped sidecar & trikes, LOTS MORE includes
         Speedometer  re-calibrator, etc.    rev:   10/14/2012    

4.   BMW frames; subframes; installing subframes     rev:  09/17/2012
      Be sure to see #2 just above, for photos and technical details!!!

5A.   Sidecar stories           rev:  03/28/2014  

5B.   Sidecar and sidecarist humor  ...and some seriousness                

6.   Flying the chair; steering reversion; countersteering           rev:  03/28/2014

7.   Miscl.  Sidecar Tech, including FUEL TANKS, brakes, TIRES, etc. 
      rev: 05/06/2014

8.   EML sidecars:  old brochure, plus LOTS of technical information on weight, dimensions,
& brakes overhaul; lamps, GT2; & other EML models, tires, etc.
      SOME EZS information too.  
Allow time to load!   rev. 07/29/2014

9.   EML sidecar tops; photos; description of various types of tops; AND my own
      custom top         rev. 09/27/2012 
                Also see #8, just above

10.  LEANER rigs. FLEXIT leaner sidecar; history, photos, etc.  Other leaners;
        conventional rigs also....hyperlinks, etc.  rev.  01/19/2014  

11.  EZS_steering_dampener; including overhaul.  Useful information for EML
 owners too.             rev:  02-18-2014
       NOTE:  See article 54-8A, above, for a general article on steering dampeners
           and shock absorber units  

12.  My first "street" sidecar, a R100RT-Ural sidecar rig, was sold April 2006.  Information & photos on that 
        rig, including the subframes and a lot of other technical items.  rev. 10/13/2012

13.  Tire article deleted on purpose (moved into article 7 just above)

14.  If you are adding lamps, or changing lamps on a K-bike, etc.  CLICK

       MORE on Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

15.  Lousy fuel mileage:   see article 81

16.  My present sidecar rig, see at the beginning of this sidecar section, and,
        see:  Our present Sidecar rig: K1100LT-EML-GT2

My K1100LT has handguards.  See K bike section article 10 or click this line

NOTE:  see article 82, well above; about insurance!

 The technical information on this site is** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

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Last edit: Sunday, August 17, 2014

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