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BMW Motorcycle Repair & Information Site!
© "Copyright, 2014, R. Fleischer"

Snowbum is also known as Robert (Bob) Fleischer,  "The Expatiating Scribe of the Sierra")

You are looking at the Technical Articles List page.
This is NOT the HomePage.
The HomePage contains access to many things NOT on, and NOT accessible from this Technical Articles List page.  Going from the HomePage to an article, via the articles list link at the bottom of the HomePage will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of the article.  I suggest you "bookmark" (Favorites) the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at right now. 
The HomePage is   

This website is best with wider screens running Internet Explorer but will be "reasonably usable" on Firefox & Chrome.  It is NOT fully optimized for small screens, tablets, and smart phones.  
This may result in some things not displayed without scanning side to side.








Hyperlink to an article on this website, a Winter Tale: CLICK!


1952, January....there is a road here someplace....




Technical information on this website is 

But, if you want to help with website costs, click here:  DONATING
That page also has history and also information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone!

Animation by Mo Massen; furnished to me by Alessandro Zorat. 

Internet mailing LISTS, Airheads Club & website:

New to Internet Mailing Lists?  Especially if new to BMW motorcycle riding & riders:
Please click & read the short article!!
After which you may want to read this:   click

"Airhead" is slang for a BMW boxer air-cooled twin manufactured between December 1969 and the end of production in 1996. "Airhead" does NOT include the boxer twins known as Oilheads, nor Hexheads nor Camheads, Waterheads, etc.

Please post inquiries to the Airheads LIST for Airheads questions.
Post to the Kbmw list for Classic K bike questions.
Post to other LISTS below, as appropriate.
By posting to the appropriate LIST, your questions, and the answers, which may come from several sources on that LIST, will help more than just yourself.  This helps me, as I can not keep up with individual replies......I need time to eat, sleep, and have a life!

The clickable places below show how to join the Airheads CLUB, and how to become a member of its FREE internet LIST.   The website contains extensive technical articles, some of which I wrote. 

Try not to confuse the website with the Airheads internet mailing LIST, nor the Airheads Beemer Club.  Many if not most Airhead owners are members of all. When a paid member of the CLUB, you receive the monthly publication, AIRMAIL.
Airheads CLUB website:
You can join on that site; or, obtain a snail-mail form, copied from the last page of the monthly Airmail, from a Member.

All the E-mailing LISTs I have noted in this longish section are primarily for technical information, and are best for immediate personalized technical advice. 

You can subscribe to the AIRHEADS LIST by going to the following URL, scan down a bit, and follow directions:
Snowbum is a Moderator on that List.

I highly suggest you do NOT use the Airheads List Digest mode, it is much less helpful than you might think.  Digest mode WILL...or MIGHT... require YOU to do much more editing in replying. Failure to do that editing is VERY annoying for you and recipients on hand-held devices, and excessive message length costs money for those that pay by the byte. Without proper BASIC editing you will post entire digests with your replies...a BIG NO NO!

Hint (this applies to any E-mailing list, Airheads is the example here):

Put into your computer E-mail address book, perhaps using a nickname such as "Airheads"; so you don't have to type the full address when YOU post a message. Most E-mail programs can do this.  If need-be, set your program to accept LIST messages. You will post and receive mail to/from:

I suggest you set your outgoing messages for PLAIN TEXT. 
You cannot post html (images, colors, etc.) directly to the Airheads LIST. 

To see all the Micapeak mailing lists and to sign onto any of them:

***NOTE: does
NOT spam you, does NOT sell or otherwise pass out
                 your E-mail address. does
NOT put advertising into your
                 or other folks E-mail messages to their Lists.

Other lists:

THE major sidecarist's technical LIST is   and
Snowbum is active on that LIST, and is a Moderator. It is usually moderately quiet.
The SCT in that address stands for SideCarTalk, which is of no special importance
at all, it is just how the LIST was named.

Technical LIST for EML sidecars:
Snowbum is active on this LIST, and is a Moderator. This list is primarily technically oriented. Typically rather quiet. The SCL in that address stands for SideCarLounge, which is of no special importance at all, it is just how the LIST was named.

Western USA branch of the United Sidecar Association:
Snowbum monitors that list. It is primarily for chit-chat, places, people, events, etc. It tends to be very quiet.

You may also be interested in which has a LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.

If you own a Classic K-bike (K1, K75, K100, K1100), join the K-bmw mailing LIST.
Snowbum is active on this LIST, which is primarily technically oriented:

There is an Internet-based FORUM for the K1200-K1300 series:
Snowbum is not on that list.

There is a K11 owners group list.  The site is quite active in the FORUMS section.          Snowbum does not normally participate.

Sometimes known as "The Big LIST", the following website covers all BMW motorcycles, with lots of technical things.
Snowbum monitors and sometimes participates on the IBMWR tech list.

Oilheads, Hexheads, Camheads, K bikes:
  Snowbum does NOT monitor nor participate here.
Some other important LISTS and FORUMS are shown in this Technical Articles List page in the K bike or Oilhead areas.

NOTE: the BMW Motorcycle Owners of America has forums on just about every BMW product since BMW began, right up to the present moment.  You must be a member to access and participate.  Snowbum participates on the BMWMOA Airheads forum now and then.


The LAWYERLY legal stuff:

The information on this website is provided at no cost and without any warranty whatsoever.  It is my personal information/opinion, which you may use at your own discretion for personal use only. Your usage does NOT make me liable for any problems.   Improperly maintained motorcycles can lead to serious injury or death or unavoidable accidents.  I am not responsible for any errors contained herein, and I make no claims whatsoever as to the safety, validity, or veracity of the information contained in these documents. Any use of the information contained in/on this website, that leads to any work you choose to do or not to do on your or anyone else's motorcycle is done at your own risk. If you do not know what you're doing, take your motorcycle to a reputable shop with skilled professional mechanics.  The instructions & information contained on these various pages merely document how the author may do his own maintenance.

Copyright information:

MOST of the articles on this website are copyrighted.   ALL ARTICLES WRITTEN BY ME AND LISTED ON THIS PAGE, OR OTHER PAGES, ARE COPYRIGHTED (unless otherwise noted).  My copyright exists whether or not you see the  © copyright symbol.  NOTE!  In general, my technical article pages show a copyright date at the top, and at the bottom.  These are NOT necessarily the date that the original article was copyrighted by me.  I change the year date if it does not agree with the present year, when I make an update to content or other information associated with that page. You are granted use for yourself, printed or electronic copies.   You are also granted approval for incorporation by reference or hyperlink to my articles for many other uses.  You must not abridge, modify, shorten, or otherwise edit my articles, unless it is made clear that you are doing so, and YOU MUST prominently note any change in INTENT, or INFORMATION.  You are NOT granted permission to DUPLICATE my articles, in part, or entirety, without prior permission from me, except as above noted.   Commercial duplication; or, editing and publishing in any manner the content or part-content of my articles; and/or failure to quote me as the source/author, use of plagiarism, etc.; including sale or other commercial activity, beyond what is specifically herein allowed without specific permission, will result in public announcement of same, and may result in prosecution under the laws of the United States.  These are NOT idle threats, I HAVE gone after those who plagiarize and misuse my written articles.  I'm VERY protective of my articles...but I will usually grant you usage beyond just for ask!  On purpose I do not make money off my articles (except if someone clicks on a Google Ad-Sense advertisement), and I don't want you to.  I also do not want you copying my material to disc or other media, and then selling them, even at cost, even for just the hard materials. 

Keep in mind that I update my website constantly, and only the on-line version is going to be the most accurate and up-to-date.

You do NOT need my permission, if you follow the preceding, to use my TECHNICAL material in many ways, but if you have any questions, you may e-mail me.   e-mail 

One of the things that REALLY ticks me off, is misquoting me; and even more-so, is modifying my articles, or parts of them, and then claiming them as YOUR work.  I  WILL pursue you LEGALLY for MONETARY and other damages if you plagiarize from my articles!  This is NOT an idle threat!

CREATIVE COMMONS are two words that describe a way for a copyright holder (that's ME!) to grant YOU permission for MY WORK to be copied, distributed, or adapted...IF....certain conditions are met, that is, 'Some Rights Reserved'.     So, to keep this simple:  You may use my work if you keep my name with it, and you LINK to my original work (and modifications or additions or comments by you are prominently so-noted), and if such are not misleading to those who might read or see my material.  You may use my material ONLY for non-commercial purposes, unless you have MY permission.  Creative Commons does NOT grant you unlimited rights; in many instances you NEED APPROVAL FROM ME.

If you have a website, & your page where you have placed something from MY website (or a hyperlink to my website, which is always appreciated!) has advertisements that pay you income if folks reading your website click on those ads, I DO NOT consider your webpage to be commercial use, so I do NOT restrict your use of my material on such a page, so long as your usage is within the rest of my above and below information on my Copyrights.

Keep  in  mind  that  I  frequently  update  articles  on  this  website, sometimes every day.  This is important if you use a search engine that saves pages on the date they scanned them and doesn't update pages until they are next scanned; and who knows when that is (no matter the coding I use to try to get their robots to do it more often). An OLD scan MIGHT or MIGHT NOT be listed as 'cached'.    It is best to go directly to this website's HomePage, and from there go to the Technical Articles List page.   The HomePage contains access to MANY things NOT on, nor accessible from this Technical Articles List page you are now looking at.  Going from the HomePage to this article's list (via the link at the bottom of the HomePage) will 100% of the time give you the LATEST version of an article by then clicking on it in the long list.    Please pay attention to what I am saying in this paragraph!  I suggest you Bookmark ('Favorites') the HomePage, and NOT the page you are looking at right now. 
Click HERE:
and bookmark (favorites) THAT URL.
Important revision/editing dates are shown at the bottom of all pertinent pages/articles and such revision date is also shown in this Technical Articles List Page.  

I request that errors or omissions on this website be reported to me, and such are welcomed.  That includes helpful comments!  (Even UNhelpful comments!) (except complaints about fonts and colors and verbosity!)

 My technical articles are © copyrighted, reading and use beyond this point constitutes an implicit acceptance of my terms and conditions!!!

Our bikes are getting old; the oldest Airheads are now officially regarded as ANTIQUES.  You can NOT rely on just any BMW dealership for repair work, nor for the proper parts and parts numbers.  Dealership personnel may well NOT have the proper knowledge nor background.  DO strongly consider independent repair centers, especially ones that participate on LISTS & FORUMS. 
I DO recommend certain shops, and individuals, upon request.  Especially see my pages 78A and 78B, below.

CHECK MORE THAN ONE SOURCE FOR INFORMATION, PARTS, AND WORK.  BMW sometimes has incorrect part numbers, and sometimes ships the wrong parts or poorly made parts.  Be careful when ordering from companies, foreign or domestic, that may not be selling genuine or REALLY equivalent BMW parts.  
BMW has published ERRORS!  These published errors get compounded (passed along) when re-published, by such as Clymers or Haynes!  In some instances I DO have "corrections to Clymers or Haynes, etc"  type of information on this site.

If you cannot easily find what you want in my website from searching manually, then click here:  SEARCH 
That search page has information on HOW to search, plus the actual search function.   The search engine for this website is VERY good, but if it does not work for you, you probably have settings in your computer that are restricting the search engine.

Airhead, K, and household things to sell OR TRADE (AND...things I want):    Click!
There is also some FREEEEE stuff here!

"There is always a greater idiot."

 Make something idiot proof and you will eventually see a demonstration of this saying.

A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof
 is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools.

"The measure of a man's character is what he would do if he knew he
never would be found out." - Baron Thomas Babington Macauley

"An expert is someone who has made all the mistakes which can be made,
in a very narrow field." --Niels Bohr

"...You cannot prove a vague theory wrong. Also, if the process of computing the
consequences is indefinite, then with a little skill any experimental results can be
made to look like the expected consequences." Richard Feynman, 1964

There are three kinds of men:
The ones that learn by reading. The few who learn by observation.
The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence.
- Will Rogers

"We have all heard that a million monkeys banging on a million typewriters will
eventually reproduce the entire works of William Shakespeare. Now, thanks to the
Internet, we know this is not true."
-Robert Silensky

"There is no practical reason to create machine intelligences indistinguishable
from human ones. People are in plentiful supply. Should a shortage arise, there are
proven and popular methods for making more."

Under democracy one party always devotes its chief energies
to trying to prove that the other party is unfit to rule
--and both commonly succeed, and are right...
-H.L. Mencken

E-mailing snowbum:  CLICK!

What's with that lamp, above? 
Interested in the yearly SuperTech Weekend?
Click HERE for details!



Always something new around here!

All the technical information on this site is: ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

If you want to help maintain this website:  DONATING



Don't trust a mechanic without an attitude. Folks who know how to do things have opinions, & opinions aren't changed easily.


Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum gets OFF and RUNNING!


Temporary'll never know what is HERE!


New to Internet Mailing Lists? New to BMW riding & BMW people? please click here & read the short article; which includes information on the Airheads mailing List, editing replies, etc.


Nerdy Stuff!

Picking up a downed motorcycle; and, a few things about side-stands

My 1984 R100RT bike, parts & many special tools, was sold.   The present owner and I have shared this bike in the past.

Hyperlink to a humorous article on this website, 'A Winter Tale': CLICK!

All the technical information on this site is:  

If you want to donate to help defray costs, click: DONATING
That page also has information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone....and MORE.

BMW numbers its motorcycle (and cars!) parts and service, ETC., by GROUPS and sub-groups.  A .pdf file showing all of these is available if you click on this: 

Our Sidecar rig:

Whitebeard, a short and true story of a happening to one of my bikes, a 1957 R60, originally published by me in 1987 in BMW MOA Owners News. 

military folks

Snowbum lives at  Lake Tahoe,  California. Click

Deer Whistles R45 & R65 OWNERS Manual
in pdf format
Not all that proficient at editing your E-mails?  Want to know how to do that, and a lot more?   Special symbols?  Foreign computers?  ETC:  CLICK

Long Distance Touring

Model Differences over the years


SEARCH for anything on this website: CLICK!

Who the HELL is Snowbum?

A FEW German words to know

  For SALE...and WANTED:  CLICK!

There is also some FREEEEE stuff here!
Getting started:
Doing your own motorcycle maintenance!


Buying or Selling a motorcycle


Photo gallery #1

Photo gallery #2

Photo gallery #3

Photo gallery #4

 Fleischer's Service??

For newer BMW POLICE bikes:
Parts information; Technical information, bulletins.



Photographs,story, our trip around the USA


An Essay on Loud Pipes, etc.

The Paradox of our age, by the Dalai Lama

Prostate Cancer;  REAL FACTS!  
Kept up-to-date!

Motorcycling to Alaska 

Join the Airheads Beemer Club!

Maintenance schedules for all BMW motorcycles (even the C1 scooters) available on the Internet:

My Airhead schedule is on MY site, and is much better. CLICK!

FUEL System in your Airhead motorcycle

(An article on fuel mileage, in depth, is #81)

1A.  Fuel filters, petcocks, fuel flow, re-fueling, clamshell models choke
        setting. rev. 09/02/2014

        Additional information is in article #1B and 12A

1B.   Fuel caps:  Removing a bad cap; R/R locks; venting problems, ETC. 
rev 09/02/2014

2.  Luftmeister Auxiliary Fuel Tanks  rev. 10/09/2012

3.  Carburetors PART 1, overhaul; GENERAL NOTES, HINTS, floats testing,
     leaking tops & dome inserts, tricky enrichener discs/shafts assemblies,
     Bing Independent Float Kits (see 5 below for all those details), ETC.  
     rev. 10/09/2013

             Be sure to read article 6, below, yes, even if you do not have a /5.

4.  Bing Carburetor PART 2, overhaul; GENERAL NOTES, high altitude JETTING
     changes tuning, hard-starting (some), ETC.     rev. 10/14/2014

5.  Bing dual-independent float kit                 rev.  02/08/2014 

6.  Early Bing CV Carburetors used on R75/5, idle problems, ETC! 
     rev. 10/03/2013
        This article has some information that applies to ALL Bing CV carburetors,
         so I suggest you READ IT!

7A.  Synchronizing Carburetors; the whole story, in awful depth.  08/03/2014     

7B.  Throttle & clutch cables; speedometer cable rubber boot at transmission;
         Control assembly perch's. 
rev. 10/04/2014

8.  Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum, OFF and
      RUNNING!      rev. 06/23/2013

9.  R80 fuel mileage problems; R80 airbox modifications.        rev.    10/13/2012

10.  Tuning Intake and Exhaust systems; PLUS Premium fuels vs mileage and
        combustion temperatures            rev. 10/02/2014

11.  Removing & plugging the Pulse Air and Evaporative emissions & fuel shutoff
         systems (also: how they work)        rev.  12/13/2013

12A.  Fuel System:  Tank cleaning;  premium vs regular; additives; TEL; alcohol;
          fitting other tanks & seats. Throttle and choke cables.  Fuel hose. Tank lining
          cleaning, sealing.  rev:  09/02/2014
See article #1A and #1B, above!
>>>>An article that describes Lead Substitutes, in depth, is here:  VALVES
           which is article 60, sub-section 5.

12B.  Bing carburetors that unrinate..  weeps, leaks onto your boot, onto the ground,
          floor, garage, grass, wherever.   rev.  11/04/2012 

12C.  The K & N air filter, the UNI air filter, stock air filters, .....etc.    rev. 11/20/2013  

13.  The Dell'Orto Carburetor                              rev.  09/24/2012       
        Huge amount of information on how ALL types of carburetors operate,
        especially needle/slide types, but also vacuum types and in particular
        the Dell'Orto carburetors.  SPECIFIC information on Dell'Orto settings for
        Airheads; where to obtain parts.  A link to an article on converting an
        Airhead to use the Dell'Orto (only the R90S CAME with them).  Links to
        other carburetor articles of considerable value.  Links to the factory DellOrto
        manuals (ON this website!) are also here.   There are MANY sketches/photos
        in this article.  Allow TIME to load up if you are on a slow connection.

Didn't find what you wanted in the above FUEL SYSTEM articles area?
   Use the search engine:   SEARCH

Gasoline's:  This is not an article by me, but a link.   Truly curious? Technically minded?   This long article describes octane, gasoline, leaded fuel, unleaded fuel, additives.   There are interesting things here and there in this article, from which you could also get to other parts/versions by re-arranging the URL.

All the technical information on this site is: ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

If you want to donate to help maintain this website:  DONATING

Electrical System:

14.    How to buy & use test lamps and multimeters, basics+.  rev.  08/11/2014          

14A.  De-mystifying & Troubleshooting BMW Airhead Boxer Motorcycle Electric
          systems; includes battery and charging information        rev. 03/11/2014
          Lots of good basic electricity information here; plus troubleshooting. 
          Also see article 15.

14B.   Critique of the ChiTech Electrics School Manual; plus some tech
            information  rev.  07/31/2013 

14C.   Here is a hyperlink to an article that describes how relays work.  
           But, this linked article DOES have just about everything you need to know
           about how relays, including Bosch/DIN numbered pins types, actually work:

  ***NOTE:  the last time I tried that link, it asked for sign-in, but after a few seconds, that
                    disappeared and the article did appear.

15.     Electrical hints and problems; descriptions of functions, ETC.   
           rev.  07/30/2014

15-A.   Alternators:  WHY 3 phases?  The STOCK Bosch, substitutions, ETC.
            rev. 11/01/2012

15-B.   Troubleshooting the Alternator/Charging system       11/05/2014

15-C.   Aftermarket Alternators:  installation, capability, performance

             rev. 10-22-2014

15-D.  Really BIG alternators on Airheads                 rev. 07/26/2013  

15-E.  Why do alternator rotors fail?  How to replace a bad rotor.
            What about the reliability of the EnDuralast?  Omega?  rev. 09/12/2014 

16-A.   Starter & Starting Problems;  Valeo to Bosch; Bosch to Valeo;  FIT problems;

            Denso starter install; starter relays; solenoids     Rev. 09/12/2014

16-B.  Troubleshooting the Starting System & variations.      rev. 09/13/2014

17.    Alternator rotors, stators, brushes, cautions, DETAILS.   rev. 09/13/2014

18.    Diode Boards & Grounding Wires; information on testing power diodes)
         rev. 09/14/2014  

19.    Alternator 'GEN' lamp circuit & resistor (AND, possibly LED) modifications.
         rev. 02/02/2014 

20.    Testing Voltage Regulators; high output and/or adjustable regulators)
          rev. 09-14-2014

21.    Servicing a Bosch Mechanical Voltage Regulator (INCLUDING the /2)
          rev. 05/18/2011

22.    Making adjustable the Bosch & Wehrle ELECTRONIC METAL CAN Voltage
          Regulators rev.  09/14/2014

23A.   Increasing the voltage output of the Wehrle PLASTIC voltage regulator  
            (for tinkerers and nerds)  10/15/2012

23B.  Schematic diagram of one version of the electronic voltage regulator  
           rev. 10/15/2012 

24A.  Lamps.  Adding relays, lamp substitutions, larger headlights,
          MODULATORS, sockets, updating /5 headlight, heavier wire,
          LED's, HID, ETC. rev. 09/14/2014            
see also 24-C and 34.

24B.  How the headlight switch & relay works.  Understanding the finer details of
           information in article 24A.   Airheads, Oilheads, K, etc.    rev. 09/15/2014

24C.  Headlight modulators. Federal Law. California Law. Technical details. 
          Links to sites with the laws and regulations, + ALL types of motorcycle
          lighting; headlight brightness, links.  rev 09/15/2014 

25.    Replacing a 5 speed neutral switch (& selecting the correct switch)
          rev. 09/15/2014

26.    Metric & American Wires, Colors, Bosch wiring Codes, wire sources;
          information about schematic diagrams.     rev. 08/28/2014

27.    Installing an accessory electrical outlet, precautions, etc.    rev.  05/06/2012

28.    Ignition Theory; Spark Ignition Systems.   rev. 09/15/2014

29.    Ignition timing; automatic advance units for single and dual-plug engines;
         single spark plug Airheads; points; condensers; amplifiers; COILS, etc!
           rev. 09/17/2014

30.    IGNITION:  Points; Timing lights;  Ignition Modules; Ignition Canister
         (rebuilding yourself or sending them out); Coils;
Spark Plug Suppressor Caps;

         Dyna & Boyer Ignitions;  rubber sealing strip; sources for modules & Hall
         sensors; testing & troubleshooting (including HIGH IDLE RPM); Points
rev. 11/22/2014 
         Some of the Hall sensor information applies to the K and Oilhead bikes.

         I highly recommend you read both #29 and #30, above; as an understanding of
         both articles may well be needed if you are contemplating changes or repairs.

        Here is a link to an article on the diagnosis and repair of the Oilhead Hall
        Effect ignition sending unit.  This article has some explanations & details that
        may help you understand the Airhead electronic ignition.

31.   Dual Plugging (and for all Airheads, discussion on milling heads,

        shaving cylinders, etc.)   rev. 09/17/2014

32.   SPARK PLUGS; threaded holes; torques; ANTISEIZE (OR NOT), spark plug
         caps & wire assemblies; resistor & non-resistor spark plugs for Airheads
         & K-bikes.  rev. 09/17/2014

33.  Ampmeters (ammeters) v. Voltmeters (and voltmeter problems)   rev. 04/27/2014

34.  Adding Running Lamp Functions to Turn Signals  rev. 10/04/2014 

35.  Rejuvenating a battery?  Filling a new 'flooded' battery &  initializing properly;
       other battery types;
which battery to purchase; sources; usage; chargers
       (SMART or not); peculiarities.  Charging voltages.   How to Load Test a Battery;
       ETC.      rev: 11/17/2014 

36.   Accessing the headlight bucket on RS/RT, cleaning headlamp/glass,
        aiming a headlight   rev. 10/03/2012

37.   Slash 5 (/5) starter relay 'cricket' noise & starting problem.  Slash 5
         (/5) bikes with stock starter relays SHOULD RECEIVE THIS MODIFICATION
         rev. 09/17/2014

37A.  Tachometers:   connections, wire colors, retrofitting to earlier models;
          checking calibration (mechanical OR electronic type)     rev. 09/18/2014 

37B.  Broken brake light switches (front & rear); stiff K bike throttles for 1985.
          rev. 05/21/2011

38A.  CAN-Bus, OBD-II, ....what is this??.   How it works.  What about the future?
rev. 08/16/2014 

Regarding section 38B onwards to the end of 38x:  
I have obtained schematic diagrams posted on this website from a variety of sources.  NONE are from the excellent Chitech BMW Electric School Manual, which is still offered for sale.   MANY schematics in it are very difficult to read, some are quite fuzzy.... but I DO recommend you purchase that manual, see my URL page for how to obtain a copy.  There is a critique, with some corrections, that I made for that manual:  chitechelmnl.htm

I PROBABLY HAVE every schematic diagram for every Airhead (& most other BMW models to 1996 or so).  My collection includes most all of the World versions, so there are literally HUNDREDS of diagrams,  including accessories ...even such as the early Airheads when they were available with Avon fairings!  Diagrams include those for heated grips, special lighting, & Authorities (Police) models.   Tthere are CONSIDERABLE similarities between various models,  enough  schematics are on this website to enable you to work on your bike.

If you need to contact me for a specific diagram, or perhaps something is not clear to you about a schematic on my website, ask on the Airheads list or K bike list or tech-list, as appropriate, FIRST.   When you post to a LIST, I would like to know what the problem is, if any, whether an interpretation or specific ill, AND,  if you need a schematic for the main frame diagram, or engine or some sub or accessory item that is not already covered on my website.  I will need to know your BMW model, its year, and if it is a USA or Euro.  It would be very helpful if you knew the model code that BMW uses for your motorcycle.  If you do not know the model code, DO furnish the full serial number or VIN number. 

Sometimes questions you may have will be answered by referring to my electrical hints article #15, or some other article in the Electrical section of my website.

Regarding AIRHEADS electrical schematic diagrams:
The R80G/S is similar to the R45, R65 and R80ST. 
The R65, ST, GS & G/S type of instrument pods will be similar, or nearly so. 
 RS and RT may be identical to each other. 
The R75/5 will use the same diagram as a R50/5 and R60/5. 
The R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S  will all be very similar. 
The /6 and later with the early style-type of pod (pod NOT like the R65, ST, G/S, GS)
    will generally have those pods in common; differences are few, and are noted in
    this website.
The /7 is mostly similar to the last of the /6 series.  

This same sort of schematic similarity is found on Classic K bikes; which have only a few differences such as lighting, whether 3 or 4 cylinders (ignition is primary schematic difference); and for the fuel injection computer, whether Jetronic or Motronic.   ABS?  Then whether ABS1 or ABS2.

Here is a link to a German website, that has a LOT of Airhead (and some R1100 oilhead & other) electrical schematic diagrams.   You will have to snoop around a bit (probably) & click on the Shaltplane or Shaltplaene.  This website keeps getting re-arranged & the actual address for the diagrams to be selected by you keep varying.   Might  be best to just go to the homepage:  & start from there.  But, you can try the addresses below, it may work!
These are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA or other non-German-shipped country bike.  Use these schematics in conjunction with what you find on my website.  There is a LOT of information besides schematics on this German website! 
The site contains information on a WIDE variety of subjects, not just electrical items.

NOTE:  Some of the schematics on BMW's OWN CD of schematics, for early eighties bikes, are wrong in some areas. This also MAY apply to 1 or 2 of the schematics for these later bikes (after 1980) on this Snowbum website, but I
MAY have edited out the errors.  The main areas you might notice that are wrong on BMW's diagrams are those showing IGNITION POINTS instead of ignition module, etc., for the particular models.

Links for more electrical schematics, etc., are found in article #80, below.

Some BMW schematics will show things NOT on YOUR bike, which were special equipment or added accessories.

38B.   Miscl. Electrical schematics for Hazard flasher system, fold-out
            fog/driving lights, heated grips, VDO instruments.  Replacing a /6 left-side
            handlebars switch.  Substitute voltmeters and clocks.  rev.  05/09/2013  

38C.   Schematic diagrams in three formats: .gif; .pdf; and .bmp;
           for R90S, R60S, R75/6, R90/6; for 1975 & into 1976.          10/13/2012

38C+.  Schematic diagram for 1974 model, /6 series, EURO, type 0271 

38D.  Schematic diagram for the 1978 Airheads, as .pdf, includes legend.

38E.  Schematic diagram for the /5 electricals, last model, fused, .pdf
38F.  Schematic Diagrams for both early and late /5.  Early model had no
          fuses.  Set your browser to expand the image as needed, it WILL be clear.

            For schematic Diagram for the late /5, as a .gif:  Late slash 5.gif
                 Late version means it has fuses

38G.  Schematic diagram, 1981 R100, R100CS, as .pdf 
          SIMILAR to many of this era.    See just below too.

          Schematic diagram, 1981-1984.   A different type of sketch than the above
          one. This is a schematic done by someone in Germany.  Compare this to the
          above one.   1983-4-showing-module-ignition.pdf
              Legend for the numbered and lettered "items" in this schematic: legend

38H.  Schematics & wires colors diagrams & descriptions for 1981-1985 R65,
           R65LS, R45, R80ST, ETC.     .jpg, and .pdf       rev. 10/13/2012    
           Schematic for the above bikes, but EURO version:   CLICK

38I.   Schematic diagram for 1979-1980 R100RS, series 0427 as shipped to various
          countries, full base diagram.  .pdf format

38J.  Main lighting diagram (only)
.   .pdf format, covers above and into the early

38K. PDF diagrams for R100GSPD:

38L.  Schematic diagram and Legend, 1989 and later R100RS/R100RT, USA,
          pdf format, TWO pages

38M.   Replacing a /5 ignition switch with a round barrel type switch:

            Here is a link for a KIT to basically do a barrel switch installation:

38N.   Radio codes:  Key OFF.  PRESS and HOLD "M"; turn key on.  If code does
           not display, then contact dealer or radio shop.   You should have written
           the code down when you purchased the bike! came with it!

 Heated Clothing:   At this time I CAN NOT recommend Gerbings products,
           due to problems, reported from MANY, with personnel, workmanship, etc.  
           I CAN recommend Widder products.



Electrical contact cleaners and treatments are in article 73.

Mechanical?  Electrical?  Stuff I'm not sure where else to put these things!

39A.  F, OT, S, and Z marks on your Flywheel (clutch carrier);
          re-marking, alignment, degreeing camshafts....ETC   rev.  5/21/2014
          For Automatic Timing Units, in depth, see article 29.

39B.   Mis-adjusted carburetors and/or sticky automatic timing units can cause
            high rpm, typically after full warmup.  See article #30, which has a section
           on just this problem.

39C.   How to safely transport your motorcycle (like in a truck or trailer, etc.)

                 Rev 09/18/2014

39D.   1974 and later Instrument housing covers, screws, broken inserts, etc:

39E.    Buried traffic light detection loops; bike triggering problems with them.

39F.    NERDY stuff,              rev. 10/13/2014

39G.   /5 instruments...and article on disassembly and repairs, etc:

                     Also See Article 48

39H.  empty on purpose

I suggest you "bookmark" (Favorites) the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at right now. 
At the bottom of the HOMEPAGE there is a DATE for the last revision.   Revision/Editing dates are ALSO listed at the bottom of NEARLY ALL OTHER pages/articles.  
The homepage contains access to things NOT on, nor accessible from the Index of Technical Articles list page you are now looking at.  Going from the homepage to an article, via the link at the bottom of the homepage will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of the article.

Mechanical Systems, Miscellaneous, and 'other stuff':

40.  Setting to do it correctly.  ALSO: What happens when
        a valve comes apart and tries to destroy the engine.    rev. 08/21/2013
       After reading this,  I recommend you read article #60 section 1; and
       60-6 and 60-5; all are below.

41.   Overheating, excessive idle time, etc.               rev. 09/22/2014       

42.  The pre-1970 slinger service; including the /2 slinger service (yeah, yeah a /2),
        rev. 09/22/2014

43.  Transmission input (clutch) splines, throwout bearing, clutch arm cleaning,
         lubrication &  inspection, adjusting swing arm.  Rev. 09/22/2014.
         See also: CLUTCH article,  Section 60, item 9, below...which has extensive
         information on the throw-out bearings, and everything "clutch".
         BOTH these articles should be read!  See #7B about control cables.

44.  Maintaining the paintwork, aluminum, windscreen & helmet visor/shield;
       how to drill plastics safely; how to repair cracked luggage; how to repair
       fairings.    Aluminum wheels paint.   rev.  10/23/2013
        Article 73 has information on products to use to maintain plastic visors,
        shields, ETC.     Also See article 75A

45.  Rear Wheel Splines; Rear Drive Output Splines; Rear Drive Oil Leaks/oil levels;
        Replacing a Rear Drive Left Seal, Inner seal, Nose seal; Oil Leaks with
        Drum Brakes; Leaking oil drain plugs; Monolever & Paralever Cardan
        Bearings; Rear Drive overhaul, Rivets, Wheel Cup; ETC.  Rev. 04/01/2014

46.  Exhaust pipe finned (spider) nuts; PLUS recommendations for exhaust
        replacements     rev. 11/07/2014

47.  Driveshaft Bolts, Washers, Torque, tools   rev. 03/29/2014

48.  Ring & pinion gears, ratios, speedometers/odometers, (instrument pod repairs-
        link), instrument numeral colors, rpm, road speeds, numeral colors.   
        rev. 08/06/2014
         also see article 39G

49.  Oil Transfers; oil/water moving someplace (or leaks).  Filling the driveshaft.
        rev. 10/12/2012 

50A.  Oiling system; oil consumption; thermostat; cooler; pressure bypass valve
          in filter canister area; remote & other oil filter kits, ETC.    rev. 09/23/2014

50B.  MORE on the BMW Airhead Oiling System:  Sketches, descriptions; caps;
          thermostats; oil breathers.    Rev. 07/14/2014

50C.  Oil Pans; oil pan gaskets; oil pan threads, oil capacity; dipsticks;
          oil pickups, WINDAGE.  
rev. 09/23/2014

50D.  Oil Coolers;  including installation.       09/24/2012   

51A.  Oil & filter change.  'Reading filters'. The "$2000 O-ring" ($3500 if you ruin
          your crankshaft).  Thermostat covers; LOTS more!
          INCLUDING spin-on oil filter conversions.  BMW airhead motorcycle Oil and
          Filter Changes; etc.  rev.  11/10/2014

51B.  Oil filters, canisters, ETC.   Information on changing your filter, types
           of oils for your airhead, oil additives; gasoline additives
            Rev.  03/12/2014
Suggested reading:  oilessay

51C.  Oil lubrication tech; oil recommendations, ZDDP; synthetics, etc.  
          Airheads, K-bikes, etc.     Rev. 09/24/2014 

51D.  Oil viscosities, viscosity indexes, engine oils, gear oils, suspension/fork
          fluids, shock absorber fluids,SAE, SUS, Cst, some ZDDP values.   BMW
          factory recommendations for viscosities.   Rev. 08/04/2014   

52.  Pinging (Pinking); LUGGING; piston detonation.  Causes, effects, cures/fixes.
           Rev. 04/05/2014  

53.   Brakes; all-about them.  Rebuilding ATE MC.   SS lines.
        Conversions/upgrades.    rev.  11/22/2014    

54.  Wheels, Tires, Axles, Hubs, Bearings, Steering Head, Forks, Seals/spacers,
        tires, dampers, ETC!  Note, see #44 for wheel paint recommendations, etc.
         You will also find information in the chemicals article.

        Section 1:  19" wheel recall      rev. 05/03/2011

        Section 2:  Wheel spoke lacing and alignment of hub/rim   rev. 04/06/2013  

        Section 3.  Tires, spacers,  wheels, balancing of wheels/tires; hints; LARGE
                             VARIETY OF STUFF HERE.  rev. 11/02/2014   Also contains info on
                             swapping various years/models of wheels (except Lester's, see
                             Section 7 below). I suggest that you also read Section 5, below.

        Section 4:  Wheel bearing preload & servicing wheel bearings.  Some other
                             wheel information also.  
rev.  10/19/2014
                                      see Section 9, below  

        Section 5:  Tire tests, reports, recommendations.  Hydroplaning;
                             tire width top hat spacers; nitrogen; selecting tires (things you
                             never knew);
rev. 11/02/2014
                             I suggest you read Section 3 above and Section 6 just below!
                             A LOT more tire information will also be found in Section 12,
                             below; including a section on vibration/thrumming, etc.

        Section 6:  Tubeless versus tubes.     rev. 07/04/2014  

        Section 7:  Lester wheels                rev.  09/04/2013  

        Section 8A:  Steering dampers. Suspension. Shock absorbers & springs.
                                  rev. 09/26/2014

        Section 8B:   Ikon and Koni shock absorbers spring chart; a pdf file

        Section 9:  Airhead Wheel Bearing Clinic++, BMWMOA National Rally,
                             July 2005; critique of BMW-ON magazine articles of 2004.
                             Updating information.
   rev: 04/15/2013
                                  Also see 54, Section 4, above

 Section 10A.   Front forks internals description, alignment, stiction, braces,
                                  gators, cleaning & lubricating (or replacing) steering
                                  bearings; springs.  In-depth discussion of STICTION & setting
                                  fork sag.  Hints regarding front fork internals.  Modifications. 
                                  Adjusting swing arm bearings.       rev.   04-11-2014

Section 10B.  Front Forks:  Oil filling amounts; pre-Airheads, Airheads,
                                 K1, K75, K100, K1100

        Section 10C.  Instability; weaving, wobbling, tank slappers; the REAL
                                 information. Rev. 09/09/2013

        Section 11.  Hyperlink to Anton's website wheel balancing article
        Section 12.  TIRE REPAIRS.  TIRE PRESSURES.  Studding.  Includes a section
                               on vibration/thrumming, etc.            rev. 11/02/2014 

 Section 13.  Brush guards (hand guards). BMW offers its own, and this part number
                               is for the black ones for the Airhead GS models, adaptable to many other
                               models:  71-60-2-315-870.  BMW also offers others, in black, and in
                               white, and many can be made to fit Airheads, and certainly even K bikes!
55.  Maintenance Schedule   rev. 09/27/2014 

56.  Cold Weather Starting   rev. 09/30/2014 

57.  Noise Silencing Pads For The Cylinder Fins   rev. 10/13/2012 

58.  Importing a motorcycle; EPA, DOT & Customs    rev. 10/04/2012

59A.  TRANSMISSIONS     rev. 11/06/2014

59B.  Emergency Shifting Tools for 5 speed transmissions         Rev. 08/28/2012  


       Section 1:  Disassembly & assembly.  Heads, pistons, rings, cylinders, break-in;
                            Helicoils;  spigots (intake stubs); Timeserts; cylinder studs; pulled
  Rocker arms; rocker blocks.  rev. 08/06/2014  

                            You may be interested in reading articles 40; 60-5, and 60-6

       Section 2:  Flywheel (& also Clutch Carrier) removal/replacement WARNING;
                         MAIN SEAL & O-ring, oil pump & its cover and seal.  Rod bolts.
                         Re-installation of Flywheel, seal installation photos.
                         Factory bulletin on new style seals.   Front crank bearing carrier.
Grabby clutch, vibrations. Hard shifting.  Idle rpm change with
                         clutch lever use due to excessive end-play
rev. 08/03/2014

       Section 2A:  Lightened flywheel information         rev. 11/06/2014    

       Section 3:   CYLINDERS. Plates, shims, gaskets, sealants.  Measuring
                             cylinders w/o special micrometers.  Ridge removal
. New rings.
                             rev. 10/06/2014

       Section 4:  Pistons (including swapping heads-cylinders-pistons), rings, pins,
                           clips, keepers,
decarboning.   rev. 10/06/2014

       Section 5:  Valves, valve seats; leaded fuels; guides, valve springs, aftermarket
                            valves, noisy valves, bead-blasting,  ETC.   rev. 07/25/2014

                            You may be interested in reading article 40, 60-1, and 60-6

       Section 6:  Rocker arms, rocker arm shafts and bushes/bearings, valve gear,
                             pushrod tubes, cylinder
heads.  Aligning the /5 valve gear.   
                                rev. 09/28/2014

                            You may be interested in reading articles 40, 60-1, and 60-5

       Section 7:  Camshafts, broken cam tips, cam sprockets, lifters (followers),
                              alternator & cam seals, crank nose bearing.  ZDDP.   Sports Cam
                              installations, duration, timing, etc. 
rev.  09/28/2014

                                BE SURE TO SEE SECTION 60, SUB-SECTION 2, ABOVE.
       Section 8:  Replacing pushrod tubes & seals & collars;  Pushrods;
                              Valve cover studs;
sealing cylinders.       rev. 09/28/2014 

       Section 9:  Clutch: arm, flywheel, carrier, bolts, upgrades, throw-out

                              bearings.  Cables, stuck clutch, clutch lever, lever
                              lever bushing.  Preventing broken transmission ears.
                              Adjustments.  Rev.  08/15/2014
                              I recommend that you also read article #43
       Section 10.  
Motor mounts:   There are 4 motor mount spacers on airheads.  The
                              two plain ones are identical & fit on the rear mount bolt (the longer bolt).  There
                              are two that have welded-on spring attachment places. ONE has TWO such
                              points, it goes on the left front & is where the sidestand & centerstand
                              springs attach.  The curved part faces DOWN, curves towards you.   The other
                              has only one attachment point, & that is for the centerstand is
                              fitted on the right front...the hole facing rearward.  There is a sidestand clip
                              that fits under the left rear nut, instead of the waverly lockwasher that is on the
                              other side.   NOTE that all spacers of any kind go between the engine and the
Torque nuts to 55 footpounds

61.  Long Distance Touring. SEATS!        rev. 10/05/2014 ;

62.  Timing Chain; sprockets; guides, wear problems, etc ...replacing, etc. 
           rev. 08/10/2014
        Use this article with the cams article, #60, subsection 7

63.   U-joint Phasing Photos, Paralever Driveshaft models and any driveshaft
         with Universal Joints.    rev. 09/30/2014

64.   Reynolds:  Ride-off center-stands; luggage racks; tour rests, bag mounts,
          trailer hitches, etc. rev:   11/17/2014

65.  TOOLS (very extensive information)  rev. 10/25/2014

66.  Making a useful hydraulic jack, cheap    rev. 10/04/2012

67A.  Engine, Frame, and other ID numbers.   How to read these
          numbers, etc., how to identify YOUR BIKE.    rev. 07/02/2014

67B.  Model differences over the years.    rev. 04/13/2014

68A.  Part numbers for hardware and MANY other parts.  Not just metal parts.
          Sources not in
REFERENCES 78B.  Pozi & Phillips screws DISCUSSION &
           INFORMATION; Locking methods discussion, ETC.  rev.   09/12/2014

68B.  The ROUNDEL; sizes, part numbers; BMW COMPANY HISTORY--IN DEPTH
           rev. 10/01/2014

69.  Parts Coding Symbols.  How to read the symbols on ETK, fiche, etc.
        rev.  10/12/2012

70.  BMW Paint Codes 1970-?    Paint, sources, colors, codes, etc.
rev. 01/21/2013

71A.  Torque Specifications & problems; conversion factors, using torque
           wrenches. Calibration checks.  
rev. 10/25/2012

71B.  Torque values for Airheads.       rev. 10/25/2014   

Changing torque wrench range; adjustment correction using extensions
          rev. 10/19/2012

72.  Formulas & conversion factors    rev. 10/09/2012  

73.  Chemicals, Oils (but NOT engine, gearbox, final drive), Additives for oil and
Greases, Electrical Contact Treatments, Antiseizes, Loctite,
       Sealants, Waxes, etc.    rev.  11/07/2014 

74.  Maintaining your leather items           rev. 10/08/2012      

75A.   Luggage, Windshields, Locks & Keys (except fuel caps), Instruments,
           mirrors, etc.   rev.  09/02/2014    
        SEE ARTICLE 1B for details and photos on gas cap problems!
        See #44 on how to repair cracked luggage, maintain plastic, etc. 
        See #73 on products to use.
        See REFERENCES  "L" for luggage for more information.
        See K bike section

75B.   Albert mirrors 

76.   Those pesky easy to lose WEDGES that fit at the handlebar controls!
         How to make one.  This is a link to a sketch in .pdf.
         The part numbers for these wedges are:   32-72-2-072-233; 32-72-1-232-929;
          and 32-72-1-242-626

77.   Modifications: Engine, Clutch, Suspension, Braking, transmission, etc....for
         performance, reliability, Fuel Mileage; street/race.  rev.  10/03/2014

78.   Useful URL's and sources for BMW motorcyclists; groups, forums, parts,
           people, websites, companies, services.  Editing E-mail messages.  Printing
           or sending
special characters from your computer. Using foreign computers.
           rev. 01/03/2014

78A.   REFERENCES:   ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & information not in 78A nor 80. 
             Includes more URL's;  e-mail addresses; contacts & descriptions; where to
             get things, service, etc.
Rev. dates are not listed for this article

78B.  Lane Splitting/sharing in California (where it is legal)

79.    Side-stands; Center-stands.  Stock and Aftermarket. 
 rev. 12/19/2013 

         ETC.  Not just BMW either.    rev.  06/08/2013
         Also see article 78 and 78A.  

81.   Lousy Fuel mileage; horsepower to attain high speeds; discussion of  HP,
        Torque, RAM-AIR, &  LOTS MORE!           rev. 10/03/2014 

82A.   INSURANCE: motorcycles & sidecar rigs; lots of things you probably did
           not think about, or know!  Negotiating with the insurance company.
              rev:  08/22/2014

82B.  What To Do (and NOT do) right away if you've been in a motorcycle
          accident. Advice from a Motorcyclist's Lawyer!

83.  Bob's 'sleeper' R75/5.   My radical supercharged R75/5     rev. 04/16/2013

84.  See 7B about control and other cables and problems.

85.  Foreign travel:  Using foreign computer keyboards:  see article 78A

You got this far, and STILL did not see what you wanted?
There is a SEARCH Page!  >>>CLICK this area 


Oilhead motorcycle section:

O1.   ABS brakes problems?   Here is a link to an article on the R1100 and R1150,
      how to reset the ABS:
          ALSO See 14A & 14B in the K-bike section, well below.

O2.   Salvage yards, for oilhead parts, etc:  

O3.   See article #30, above, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.
      How to go about repairing the ignition sensors:

O4.   R1100RT: LCD Temperature & Fuel Gauge Calibration; Fuel Sender Testing &
      Cleaning, troubleshooting   rev. 10/13/2012.  

O5.   Links to a website with good stuff for Oilheads, such as on the ABS system;
      TDC locating mandrel, ignition timing box, etc.    First, the main link:

      This next link is to an article on the same website.   It is on the diagnosis and
       repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition sending unit.  
        You may want to refer to my own extensive  IGNITION article

O6.    Bleeding/servicing the integrated brakes may want to read these:

O7.   Link to German website, with LOTS of Airhead (and some R1100 oilhead)
      electrical schematic diagrams.   Click on the Shaltplan, shown in red on that
      page, for your model:  

       Those are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA or other
       non-German-shipped country bike.  Use these schematics in conjunction
       with what you find on my website. There is a LOT of information besides
       schematics on the German website.

O8.  Death Rattle:  Does your 850, 1100, or 1150 Oilhead, 1994-2004, make an
     uncomfortable-to-hear rattle upon startup?  Hexheads too!
      Article describes the fix, with photos.  The rear-view engine cut-away
      photo is a REAR-view of an Oilhead motor. The Hexhead tensioners are the
      same.  Note that the left tensioner assembly is located on top of the cylinder,
     "facing" downward, in a position that allows oil to drain out of the tensioner
      sleeve during shutdown. The right side tensioner assembly faces upward from
      the bottom, and IT remains full of oil during shutdown. This is why the
      tensioner that is typically repaired is the left side one.

O9.  Hyperlink to a forum-type website.  Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead,
     Camhead, K.

O10.  Hyperlink to an article on what belts were used, which to use, how to adjust
        them, & at what interval replace them, etc.

O11.  Oilhead HINTS     rev.  10/12/2012

O12.  Replacing an oil level sight glass rev. 10/04/2014

O13.  Tool to lock flywheel and TDC locator:

O14.  There is a new-style Teflon oil seal being used on ALL BMW motorcycles.
        I expect it will be used at more places for replacement purposes, over the
        years.  The original Service Information bulletin is on this website:

O15.  Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.  
Rev. 10/04/2014

O16.  Control Cables problems.    Same as article 7B, Airheads section

Original owner's manuals (booklets) for R1200GS; K1200; K1300 series; F650GS;F800 series; S1000 series, etc.:
You may have to look for the owners booklets, BMW keeps changing the location on the website.  The above is a shortened DISPLAYED HERE link, but is a FULL link.  Allow to load up fully. When you see SERVICE at the top, click on it.
Allow to load, then click on the left side for Riders Manuals.

All the technical information on this site is:  

If you want to donate to help maintain this site: DONATING
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CLASSIC K-bike motorcycle section:
CLASSIC K-BIKES ARE K MODELS K1, K75, K100, K1100, and sort of into the K1200

NOTE: Snowbum does not work on, nor have hardly much knowledge, about certain bikes, these are the F series; K 1200; S1000R; HPx; K1300; K1600 series. For any of those, consult other places.  For those K series you might be interested in the following website:
   that appears to be a duplicate of

Snowbum is active on the K-BMW LIST:
  Forum style.  Classic K bikes.   Active, lots of opinions, watch for awhile to sort out who knows, who guesses, etc.  Snowbum isn't on this forum. 
The so-called BIG LIST.  Has a section on tech. Lots of K bike stuff.  Snowbum participates some on the techlist.
The mainpage is seldom changed, that is, hardly ever anything added to it.     BUT, the FORUMS are active.

K1100LT and K1100RS repair manual:

Classic K bikes model history, K1, K75, K100, K1100:
There are some things missing, and some that need embellishment, etc.   There were changes in the rod lengths and pistons, the radiator got more fins, lots of little things also.  But, Anton's list is a good one.

K1.  Starter sprag clutch problems in classic K bikes     rev.  04/21/2013  

K2.  Hints, advice, parts, BMU---Bulb Monitoring Unit, etc.     rev.  11/01/2014
 Information on converting rear, or front, or both, turn signals
          to add running lamp function, is in article 34.

K3A.    A version of the K100 schematic:   K100 Schematic Diagram, pdf format

K3B.    K100LT, entire schematic diagram of whole bike.   This is a pdf, made
             directly from BMW's own information.  It is for the UK ABS version.
             In general, covers the 1987-1989 era, probably a bit more.    K100LT.pdf

K3C.    This is the LEGEND for the above, 3B, schematic diagram:   LEGEND.docx

K4.  Brake squealing, any model, and very especially the K75?...see article 53 which
      DOES include information for K75, & all classic K bikes, for that matter.
     That article also has a lot of information on bleeding the brakes!

K5.  Salvage yard, for parts, etc.:  (973)-775-3495.
     Some other salvage yards are listed in my references article (article 78-B). 
     You can also try:

K6.  See article #30 ABOVE, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.  

K7.  U-joint Phasing photos, any U-joint driveshaft system, including Paralever
       Driveshaft models           rev. 09/30/2014

K8.  K bike instrument pod;  repairing & calibrating speedometer; clock modification
      for 12 hour clock indication; Radio codes; ETC.
     rev. 10/04/2014

K9.  K bike fork oil requirements     rev. 10/07/2012                  

K10.  Fitting handguards/brushguards to a K1100LT  (and earlier models)
          rev.   10/07/2012   

K11.  Troubleshooting the LE-Jetronic classic K bikes (2 valve K75, 2 valve K100). 
        Register at:
        HUGE amount of technical information, and even a step-by-step article, but
        you have to really search the site to find this stuff (especially by VOGEL) page/K100 troubleshooting

K12.   Front forks oil changing:  See #9, just above.  ALSO see
         article Section 54, sub- section 10B.  Also see 10A for fork alignment.

K13.  Changing Coolant on a Classic K bike, discussion about coolants, all the fun

          details (and more!). Heat insulation under the tank, etc.    rev. 04/07/2013   
ains notes on why the coolant job could be effected by any update
                of early K bikes from 400 watt to 700 watt alternators, ETC.

K14A.   If you need to have a fuel injection computer or ABS computer brain
           Lots of good testing advice here too!

            will get you the main page, lots of technical information there!

            See above links, then Contact Tosi at:  
            Highly recommended by several people.

            Here is a place in the Netherlands that does all sorts of modules/computer
            brains, etc.:

            BBA Re-manufacturing; 300 Myles Standish Blvd.; Tauntonk MA 02780
                      (866) 573-2740;  (508)-822-4490   
            I have TWO reports that do NOT recommend these folks, and none
            that DO recommend.

K14B.   If you are having ABS codes problems, before you jump to conclusions,
           remove both ABS relays, clean contacts and clean the relay connection
           spades too, and add contact cleaner to them.
  This is also good advice
           for the ABS main computer plug connections. Here are a couple of
           articles to look at:

    Scan down for the ABS articles

K15.   Ignition problems:  much here on the module and hall devices
           are applicable:

K16.     Adjusting the steering head bearings on a K75, K100, K1100:

K17.     Brake light switch problems....see article well above, #37B.  If you have a
          1985 K bike, and a stiff throttle,
also read that article 37B...yes, a brakes
          switch article!   Info is well down the article.

K18.   Hyperlink to a forum-type website.  Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead,
           Camhead, K.   

K19.   Locks, gas caps, KEYS, etc.......I have an article, #1B and #75A, WAY above,
          that covers all of these things in depth. 

K20.   See Airhead section article #30 regarding the ignition circuitry, lots of useful
        information on the Hall element, etc. The following article, while for a R1100RT
        oilhead, is useful for K bike owners; it is illustrated & is about replacing the
        Hall sensors for a R1100RT sensor repair, & is SIMILAR for a K bike:


        NOTE:  If your Classic K-bike is having irregular ignition problems, and you can't find
                      anything wrong with the ignition, remove the valve cover, and check to be sure
                      that the cover is grounded to the engine by means of a coil spring that is mounted
                      to a cam bearing mount. 

K21.   Doing a rear main seal job is involved.   Here is a video of the procedure to
          R/R the main seal on a Classic K bike.  Useful for anyone wanting to know
        what/how in taking apart the bike....even if not doing a rear main seal job.
        In GERMAN for sound. The mechanical support for the bike is flimsy in MY
        opinion.  They found one of the headers case you wonder about
        the exhaust pipe being 'shown'.

K22.    Information for Classic K bikes, NOT just the K100.
         Many Service Bulletins here too: 

K23.   A lot of K bike information.   Has all the wiring diagrams for  has a lot of
        information.  In German, but very useful!  Covers all the Classic K bikes (K1,
        K75, K100, K1100, K1200), & lots more.  Wiring diagrams are under Shaltpläne.

K24.   How to replace an oil level sight glass    rev. 10/04/2014

K25A.   Service Information Bulletin SI-2630R:  failure to use all fuel in the fuel tank,

         whining noise from the fuel pump.   This is a link to a PDF file on this website.
The sketches are not very clear, so look at them with a critical eye!
               If you can furnish a really nice clear copy of that bulletin, let me know.

K25B.   Replacing a fuel pump:  K1, K75, K100, K1100
    rev. 10/04/2014

K26.  Engine oil, & lubrication in GREAT DEPTH:  see article 51-C, ABOVE

K27.   Worn rear drive splines?  Bad U-joint?  Upgrade?
        see: drives.htm
          and see the videos below (all of them!)

        Doing a K75 rear drive input spline and driveshaft and swing arm lubrication?
        This is a link to a how-to video, it's in German, but you will understand it.  Note
         that normally one does not pull the swing arm, in this video I suspect it was
         done to replace the boot, and check the swing arm bearings.


        Here are two videos on K75 and K100 rear drive spline servicing, Bruno's
        driveshaft and rear spline rebuilding, etc. 

K28.   New style seal used on K bikes at the alternator drive:

K29.    Link to a 6 part video series on how to disassemble and reassemble a
          Classic K-bike, to do an input spline service.  Includes a lot of service
          and commentary on things the servicer found on this bike along the way.
          Lots of good hints.    Very complete, including the swearing. 


K30.    Control cables problems
  rev 10/04/2014   (same as airheads 7B)

K31.   Re-keying locks, especially fuel tank lock; problems with the cap; and other

         also:  see my article 1B and 75A in the Airhead section of this site, EXTENSIVE
              information in these two articles of mine.

K32.    FUEL CAP on K bikes (and other bikes too). This is a video.   It covers R/R cap
          internals.  No information on keying locks.

          NOTE:   The "kit" in the video, 16-11-9-062-461R  was sourced from Bob's
             BMW.   The "R" means Bob's is selling a repair kit.  Be sure to get gasket
        see my article 75A also

K33.    Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

NOTE!....Some of my Airhead articles are informative for K bike owners.  Examples are my articles 78 and 78A.  Many other examples of useful articles are in the Airheads sections.  Scattered in this long list of Technical Articles you are reading are stated references to Airheads articles that also apply to Classic K bikes, but I have probably missed a few. I suggest you look at the entire list of articles, and see what might apply to your Classic K bike.

I have a page that has some motorcycle (yes, some K bike stuff too) and personal stuff for sale (or TRADE!):    click here

Sidecar specific section:

(starting with my present rig, the tech stuff follows this)

Our present Sidecar rig: K1100LT-EML-GT2 (CLICK!)

Previously Al Olme's sidecar rig.  I had it shipped to me from Minnesota by HaulBikes (also known as Daily Direct); whose service is highly recommended by me & many others, including dealerships.  I removed the Police-type saddle & Authorities radio trunk prior to Penny & my 2008 trip across the USA,  installing the stock seat & trunk.   The Police/Authorities items have been sold.  I  have City-cases, as well as Tour-bags & use whichever is appropriate. I often use the rig with the Tour-bag or City-case on the left (City-case on right for easier access).   On a long tour where I need every cubic inch of space when Penny is along, I use the Tour-bag on the right.  Specifications below are in brief, as I have done a LOT of modifications.

Tug wheels:  4.5 x 14" EZS.
Tug tires: 175/70-R14 rear, 165/70-R14 front (175 in future)
Sidecar wheel:  #300, 15" EML with 135R15 tire (or can be 135/80-R15) 
Front fork:  EZS Leading Link with floating brake discs.
Front shocks: Koni 7610-1282 shocks (modified by me).
 Brembo twin spot calipers on tug, dual front floating discs.
Floating calipers with torque arms. 
ABS system removed.
 Single disc rear brake uses Brembo two-piston 38 mm P108 caliper.
Rear master cylinder 16 mm Magura. 
 Brembo F05 sidecar disc brake plumbed to the rear tug braking system.
   Front wheel offset to right by 1-3/8".  Sidecar wheel lead 13-1/4". Toe-in 3/8".  
 The need for a steering dampener, hydraulic, my modifications, is quite minimal. 
R1100S modified hand-guards. 
 Hotel-quality rugs in chair and chair trunk. 
Multiple types of electrical outlets in chair. 
Way over-designed/over-built TOP, designed/made HERE...sheesh what a job!
  See #9 below.

Some specifications, including empty and loaded weights & dimensions;
plus a lot of SERVICE information for the EML sidecar, will be found on this website, HERE:


The SKUNK flag stands for Sidecars Up Nort Klub; 
Up Nort stands for anyplace Up North of someplace.   

Snowbum is active (and a moderator) on the SCT sidecar LIST:
Same for EML Group:

SC1A.   The good points, the bad points, literature and information: an overview of
sidecaring basics     rev: 03/28/2014

SC1B.    List of Sidecar groups on the Internet               rev: 10/14/2012       

SC1C.  Hyperlink for the Evergreen Council group training schedule for Basic &
         Advanced training:


SC1D.   Hyperlink to a website that has a lot of photos, videos, links, etc., about
         sidecar traveling, much is out of the USA, some videos, etc., are in English,
         but the whole site is fun to look through, and you could use Google translate:


SC1E.   German website, lots of interesting things....if you do not read German, put
         the URL into Google Translations.


***NOTE!   If you use Google CHROME browser, it has settings that will give you
                   automatic translations.

SC1F.   Source for Vintage sidecar items, numerous manufacturer's items here.

SC2.   Sidecar Tech.  Where to get information.  Manuals, mechanicals, photos,
           licensing, modifications, subframes, mounts, alignment details/photos of
           R100RT-Ural rig mounts, etc.              rev. 10/05/2014
see SC3

SC3.   Sidecar resources: INCLUDING  setting up sidecars, how to drive one,
           resources for handicapped sidecar & trikes, LOTS MORE includes
           Speedometer  re-calibrator, etc.    rev:   10/04/2014       
see SC2

SC4.   This article was heavily edited and then placed inside SC2.

SC5.   Sidecar and sidecarist humor  ...and some seriousness    rev: 10/05/2014 

SC6.   Flying the chair; steering reversion; countersteering      rev:  11/08/2014

SC7.   Miscl.  Sidecar Tech, including FUEL TANKS, brakes, TIRES, etc. 
            rev: 10/05/2014

SC8.   EML sidecars:  old brochure, plus LOTS of technical information on weight,
      dimensions, suspension & brakes overhaul; lamps, GT2; & other EML models,
      tires, etc.  SOME EZS information too.  
Allow time to load!   rev. 09/06/2014

SC9.   EML sidecar tops; photos; description of various types of tops; AND my own
      custom top         rev. 09/27/2012 
                Also see #8, just above

SC10.  LEANER rigs. FLEXIT leaner sidecar; history, photos, etc.  Other leaners;
        conventional rigs also....hyperlinks, etc.  rev.  10/13/2014  

SC11. EZS_steering_dampener; including overhaul. 
NOTE:  See both articles 54-8A  and SC2 for steering dampeners and shock
                         absorber units that covers sidecar usages in depth!
SC12.  My first "street" sidecar, a R100RT-Ural sidecar rig, was sold April 2006. 
        Information & photos on that rig, including the subframes and a lot of other
        technical items.  rev. 10/13/2012

SC13.  Tire article deleted on purpose (moved into article 7 just above)

SC14.  If you are adding lamps, or changing lamps on a K-bike, etc.  CLICK

       MORE on Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

SC15.  Lousy fuel mileage:   see article 81

SC16.  My present sidecar rig, see at the beginning of this sidecar section, and,
Our present Sidecar rig: K1100LT-EML-GT2

My K1100LT has handguards.  See K bike section article 10 or click this line

NOTE:  see article 82, well above; about insurance!

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There is also some FREEEEE stuff here!

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Last edit: Saturday, November 22, 2014

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