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Snowbum's Encyclopedic BMW Motorcycle
Repair & Information Website
"The Expatiating Scribe of the Sierra's"

This is the Technical Articles List page.
© "Copyright, 2015, R. Fleischer"

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This is NOT the HomePage. The HomePage accesses many things, including some articles, NOT accessible from this Technical Articles List page.  Going from the HomePage to the Technical Article List page, using the clickable link at the bottom of the HomePage will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of any article; thus, I suggest you "bookmark" (Favorites) the HomePage, NOT the page you are looking at right now! The HomePage is:


Animation by Mo Massen; furnished to me by Alessandro Zorat

Covers the 1984 R100RT & the above 1995 R100RT
that replaced it.

Snowbum, by early 2015, had ~650,000 miles on BMW motorcycles

1952, January ...There's a road here someplace!

Technical information on this website is

But, if you want to help with website costs, click here: DONATING
That page has history and information about this website.

Internet mailing LISTS, Groups, Airheads Club & website:

New to Internet Mailing Lists?  Especially if new to BMW motorcycle riding, riders & E-mail; ... click & read the short article:
After which you may want to read this, one of my two articles on resources:
The other article on resources?

"Airhead" (??):
Airhead is slang for a BMW boxer (two-cylinders, opposed) air-cooled motorcycle manufactured between December 1969 (the /5 series) and the end of its production in 1995-1996. "Airhead" does NOT include other opposed cylinder twins.

Please post technical inquiries to the Airheads LIST regarding Airheads; and NOT directly to me.  In this way, your questions (& answers which may come from several sources on that LIST, and not just me), will help more than just you.  This helps me, as I can not keep up with individual replies ......I need time to eat, sleep, and have a life!

The clickable links show how to join the Airheads CLUB. is the Club's website, contains many things, including technical articles, some of which I wrote.  Try not to confuse that website with the Airheads internet mailing LIST.   Probably a majority of Airhead owners in the USA are members of the Club, and also members of the E-mailing LIST.   When you are a paid member of the CLUB, you receive the monthly printed-on-paper publication, AIRMAIL.  You can join the CLUB on that site; or, obtain a snail-mail form, copied from the last page of the monthly Airmail, from a Club Member.   The site has been overhauled and totally updated, and now includes FORUMS.  Snowbum does not like Forums, and usually does not participate.

E-mailing LISTs are primarily for immediate, personalized, technical information, although there are some that are specifically for social discourse. You can subscribe to the AIRHEADS internet mailing LIST by going to the following URL, scan down a bit, and following directions:    Snowbum is a Moderator/Administrator on that LIST. does NOT spam you; does NOT sell or otherwise pass out your E-mail address; does NOT put advertising into your or other folks E-mail messages.

Hint #1:  I suggest you do NOT use the Airheads List Digest mode, it is much less helpful than you might think.  Digest mode WILL require YOU to do more editing if replying to a LIST message. You may not see how to reply to just a single sender in either mode.  Failure to edit is VERY annoying for you AND RECIPIENTS, particularly those using hand-held devices, and excessive message length costs money for those that pay by the byte. Without proper BASIC editing technique you will/could post entire digests with your replies ...a big NO! NO!   Basic editing instruction is available here:

If you have not yet read this, be sure to:

Hint #2:  Put  into your computer E-mail address book, perhaps using a nickname such as "Airheads"; so you don't have to type the full address when YOU want to post a message.  Most E-mail programs can do this.  If need-be, set your program to accept LIST messages. You will post and receive mail to/from: I also suggest you put a signature line, with your E-address at least, and perhaps your general location, and perhaps a year and model of your Airhead, at the bottom of each message.

Hint #3:  I suggest you set your outgoing messages, for the particular LIST or FORUM, for PLAIN TEXT. You cannot post HTML (images, colors, etc.) to the Airheads LIST.  Your message size is limited to 100Kb.   To post images, use any of the common FREE (no sign-up needed) image posting sites for your image(s), and put a LINK to that image in your message to

Airheads LIST Archives:

Facebook Groups (membership is from many countries in all of these).  All have many thousands of members:   A popular Group.  MANY members from OZ & other areas of the world, and USA too.  Another popular Group.
Snowbum is an active Member of all three above groups. 
 Australia and New Zealand mostly.

A wee bit of a rant:
I, Snowbum, "have problems" with Facebook, besides big security and privacy concerns.  PRESENTLY I feel I have to participate, but not in great depth, on Facebook, in the above group of 3, considering the numbers of people in those groups, and the questions asked, and the low usage by those Members, of my own website you are reading this on.  I believe it is difficult to find topic threads for the past.  Replies help only a few people at a time.  Just THOSE two things make Facebook highly INefficient as a place for information.  Facebook was designed for Social Interactions AND THE REASON BEHIND DEVELOPING FACEBOOK IS ITS OWNER'S DESIRE TO CAPTURE YOUR PRIVATE DETAILS SO AS TO SELL YOUR DETAILS TO OTHER COMPANIES, THE END RESULT IS FACEBOOK, AND OTHERS, SENDING ADVERTISEMENTS TO YOU AND EVERYONE ELSE, INCLUDING DOING THEIR BEST TO INVOLVE ANYONE YOU KNOW OR COMMUNICATE WITH, NO MATTER HOW; AND, TO SELL ANYTHING ABOUT YOU THAT THEY CAN GATHER. This is what our mass media world, the information society, is doing to us.  For Airhead owners purposes, Facebook enables STATEMENTS, MISSTATEMENTS, & GUESSES (to be polite) to be transmitted to many thousands of people in a few seconds.

I am aware that Facebook groups DO have a way to search for past discussions on some topic, or even a poster's name.  Near the top of your group's page, look for the small box with a magnifying glass symbol.  Type the word or words, briefly, into the box, and press ENTER, or whatever your method will be.  Still, Facebook is, in some respects, an ongoing catastrophe.   I, Snowbum, MAY, in the future, drop ALL of my Facebook (and other social media) involvements.

I suggest YOU use the Airheads LIST for technical questions & information inquiries.  This is where I, Snowbum hang out the most, and I am a moderator/administrator.

THE major sidecarist's LIST is Snowbum is active on that LIST, and is a Moderator. It is sometimes very quiet.   The SCT in that address stands for SideCarTalk, being just how the LIST was originally named.  The LIST is primarily technically oriented.

You may be interested in this page:  A number of sidecarists hang out here, and this is the page for Claude Stanley's Freedom Sidecars, a custom sidecar shop, which, for years, has been doing high quality work.

Technical LIST for EML sidecars: is active on the LIST, & is a Moderator. This low noise and typically quiet list is primarily technically oriented. The SCL in that address stands for SideCarLounge, being just how the LIST was named.

Western USA branch of the United Sidecar Association:
It is primarily for Western USA chit-chat, places, people, events, etc.  It tends to be VERY quiet, almost defunct now.  If you are a sidecarist, or potential sidecarist, and live someplace west of the Rocky Mountains, you might want to post here, besides other places.

Important website:
A LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.   Be sure to download, or at least read, the three article/books on that site furnished to the USCA by the late Dr. Hal Kendall: how to set up and drive a sidecar rig, ETC. (LOTS of ETC!!).
Click at the top at Links and Books, then click on Books & Manuals.

If you own a Classic K-bike (3 and 4 cylinders, brick type engine) (K1, K75, K100, K1100...), join the K-bmw mailing LIST.  Snowbum is somewhat active there, which is primarily technically oriented:

Internet-based FORUM for the K1200 & K1300 series:   Snowbum does not participate.

There is a K11 owners group list.  The site is usually quite active in its FORUMS section.
Snowbum very seldom participates.  Sometimes known as "The Big LIST", this Internet BMW Riders website covers all BMW motorcycles, with lots of technical things:    Snowbum monitors & sometimes participates on the IBMWR tech list, which you can sign up for, on the website.  There is a FREE marketplace on that site, and catalogued technical articles.  Be cautious about what technical advice/information/articles you see and use ...some are not good.  Oilheads, Hexheads, Camheads, K bikes; and, generally, any BMW rider into sport touring.   Snowbum does NOT monitor nor participate here.

Some other important LISTS and FORUMS are shown in this Technical Articles List page in the K bike or Oilhead areas.  BMW Motorcycle Owners of America (BMWMOA) has forums on BMW products since BMW began, right up to the present moment.  You must be a member to access and participate fully.  Snowbum participates on the BMWMOA Airheads FORUM now and then ....but, take that to mean RARELY.

Legal stuff:

The information on this website is provided at no cost and without any warranty whatsoever.  It is my personal information & opinion, which you may use at your own discretion, for personal use only. Your usage does NOT make me liable for any problems.    Improperly maintained motorcycles can lead to serious injury or death or unavoidable accidents.  I am not responsible for any errors contained herein, and I make no legal claims whatsoever as to the safety, validity, or veracity of the information contained in these documents.  Any use of the information contained in/on this website, that leads to any work you choose to do or not to do on your or anyone else's motorcycle is done at your own risk.  If you do not know what you're doing, take your motorcycle to a reputable shop with skilled professional mechanics.  The instructions & information contained on these various pages merely document how the author may ....or may not his own maintenance.

Copyright and Plagiarism information:

MOST of the articles on this website are copyrighted.   ALL ARTICLES WRITTEN BY ME AND LISTED ON THIS PAGE, OR LISTED/SHOWN ON OTHER PAGES, OR OTHERWISE ON THIS WEBSITE, ARE COPYRIGHTED, UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFICALLY NOTED.  My copyright exists whether or not you see the  © copyright symbol or statement.

Website pages MAY show a copyright date at the top, and/or near the bottom.  These dates are NOT necessarily the date that the original article was copyrighted by me.  You are granted use of my website pages for yourself, as printed or electronic copies.   You are also granted approval for incorporation by reference (or hyperlink to my articles) for many other uses.  You must not abridge, modify, shorten, or otherwise edit my articles, unless it is made clear that you are doing so, & YOU THEN MUST prominently note any change in INTENT, or INFORMATION.  You are NOT granted permission to DUPLICATE my articles, in part, or entirety, without prior permission from me, except as above noted.  Commercial duplication; or, editing, publishing, or sales in any manner the content or part-content of my articles; and/or failure to quote me as the source/author, use of plagiarism, etc.; including other commercial activity, beyond what is specifically herein allowed without specific permission, will result in public announcement of same; and, if you do not cease & desist, will LIKELY result in prosecution under the laws of the United States; and other nations.  These are NOT idle threats, I HAVE legally gone after those who plagiarize & misuse my written articles; including for monetary damages & lawyers fees.  I'm VERY protective of my articles ...but I will usually grant you usage even beyond just for yourself, ask!

One of the things that REALLY ticks me off is misquoting or partially quoting me in a way that changes meaning.  I usually publically correct such.

What makes me MUCH MORE feeling like I want to (and WILL) be nasty to find someone has modified my articles, or parts of them, & then claims them as their work. Plagiarism is what this is called.  THAT PERSON IS STEALING FROM ME.   Note what I said previously, above.  I WILL pursue LEGALLY for MONETARY & other damages, and I will do it to the absolute maximum the Court allows, unless that person both corrects and apologizes, publically.  This is NOT an idle threat!

On purpose I do not make money off my articles (except if someone clicks on Google Ad-Sense advertisements), and I don't want you to make money off my articles either.  I do not want you copying my material to disc or other media, and then selling them, even at cost for just the media materials.  Keep in mind that I update my website constantly.  Only the latest on-line version is going to be accurate and up-to-date.  Providing outdated information by you, or anyone else, is BAD, so I "go after" those folks.

You do NOT need my permission, if you follow the preceding, to use my TECHNICAL material in many ways, but if you have any questions, you may e-mail me:  e-mail

I try to allow YOU the widest reasonable use of my articles & content.  The rest of this Copyright section explains things in a simpler fashion.

CREATIVE COMMONS are two words that describe a way for a Copyright Holder (that's ME!) to grant YOU permission for MY WORK to be copied, distributed, or adapted ... IF ... certain conditions are met.  Conditions can include 'Some Rights Reserved'.    So, to keep this simple:   You may use my work if you keep my name prominently with my work; and, you, at a minimum, LINK to my original work (and prominently note/show ANY modifications or additions or comments by you or anyone using your copies, etc., as being from other than me, and such are prominently displayed).  Such must not be misleading to those who might read or see my material.  You may use my material ONLY for non-commercial purposes, unless you have MY permission for each instance.  Creative Commons does NOT grant you unlimited rights.
....................     ...................     .....................    ...................     ......................    ........................

CLARIFICATION:  If you have a website, & your page where you have placed something from MY website, and so acknowledged (or a hyperlink to my website, which is always appreciated!) has advertisements that provide you income if folks reading your website click on those ads, I DO NOT, in most situations, consider your webpage to be commercial use of my material, so I do NOT restrict your use of my material on such a page, so long as your usage is within what I have stated in my Copyright and Creative Commons information sections.

I frequently update articles on this website. This is important if you use a search engine that saves pages for faster loading, & doesn't update pages until they are next scanned; and who knows when that is (no matter the coding I use to have to try to get their robots to do it more often and to restrict caching).  BEWARE of your computer 'caching' copies. Using a refreshed mode may be your best solution (just press F5 on Windows when the page you are interested in is displayed).

An OLD scan MIGHT or MIGHT NOT be from 'cached, or even listed as 'cached'.    It is best to go directly to this website's HomePage and from there go to the Technical Articles List page.   Press F5 on each page being looked at.

The HomePage contains access to MANY things NOT on, nor even accessible, from this Technical Articles List page you are now looking at.  Going from the HomePage to this Technical Articles List page (via the link near the bottom of the HomePage) will, 100% of the time, give you the LATEST version of any article by then finding and clicking on it, and then pressing F5.    Please pay attention to what I am saying in this paragraph.  I suggest you Bookmark ('Favorites') the HomePage  and NOT the page you are looking at right now.  Click HERE:  and bookmark (favorites) THAT URL when it is immediately displayed.

AS NOTED:  YOUR BROWSER may cache an OLDER page from this website!  If there is ever a question about having the latest version of one of my pages/articles, I suggest you 'refresh' the browser when it is on the page of interest to you.   This is done in various ways depending on your computer.  If you are using Windows, simply tap the F5 key once, on any such page.   If you are doing something especially or likely critical to your motorcycle, please consider this strongly.

Revisions dates are 'usually' shown at the bottom of nearly all pertinent articles and are also shown in this Technical Articles List Page.   I MAY make minor revisions withOUT changing dates.  That is just one more reason to use the HomePage entrance, as you ALWAYS get the latest version that way.

Please report errors, omissions, and comments to me; such are welcomed:   E-mail

Our bikes are getting quite old.  The oldest Airheads (Airheads began with the 1970 models) are now officially regarded as ANTIQUES.  You can NOT rely on just any BMW dealership (SOME ARE VERY GOOD) for repair work, not even for the proper parts and parts numbers.  Dealership personnel may well NOT have the proper knowledge nor background.  I suggest you strongly consider independent repair centers, especially ones that participate on LISTS & FORUMS.   Be cautious about SOME folks, INCLUDING independents, that put videos on such as YouTube.  I have a list of Independents that I approve of.  I DO recommend certain shops & individuals, upon request.  Especially see my Articles # 78 and # 78A, below.

BE CAUTIOUS ABOUT WHERE YOU GET WORK DONE, WHERE YOU PURCHASE PARTS, EVEN IF FROM BMW DEALERSHIPS!  CHECK MORE THAN ONE SOURCE FOR INFORMATION, PARTS, AND WORK.  BMW sometimes has incorrect part numbers, and sometimes ships wrong parts or poorly made parts.  Be careful when ordering from companies, foreign or domestic, that may not be selling genuine or TRULY equivalent BMW parts.  BMW has published SERVICE INFORMATION ERRORS!   These published errors get passed along when re-published, by such as Clymers or Haynes!  In some instances I DO have "corrections to Clymers or Haynes, etc"  information on this site.

Can't find what you want in this website??
Click in the box below.   I have similar boxes scattered in the articles LIST you are reading, for your convenience. The Search page has information on HOW to search, plus the actual search function.   The search engine for this website is VERY good, but if it does not work for you, you probably have settings in your computer software that are restricting the search engine.

Airhead, K, and household things FOR FREE OR SALE OR TRADE (AND ...things I want): Click!
YES....There is also some FREEEEE stuff!

"There is always a greater idiot."

Make something idiot proof and you will eventually see a demonstration of this saying.

A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools.

"The measure of a man's character is what he would do if he knew he never would be found out." - Baron Thomas Babington Macauley

"An expert is someone who has made all the mistakes which can be made, in a very narrow field." --Niels Bohr

"...You cannot prove a vague theory wrong.  Also, if the process of computing the consequences is indefinite, then with a little skill any experimental results can be made to look like the expected consequences." Richard Feynman, 1964

There are three kinds of men:  The ones that learn by reading. The few who learn by observation.  The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence.  - Will Rogers

"We have all heard that a million monkeys banging on a million typewriters will eventually reproduce the entire works of William Shakespeare. Now, thanks to the Internet, we know this is not true."   -Robert Silensky

"There is no practical reason to create machine intelligences indistinguishable from human ones. People are in plentiful supply.  Should a shortage arise, there are proven and popular methods for making more."

"Under democracy one party always devotes its chief energies to trying to prove that the other party is unfit to rule---
---and both commonly succeed, and are right..."   -H.L. Mencken

E-mailing snowbum:  CLICK!

What's with this lamp?  Interested in SuperTech?  Click HERE for details!

All the technical information on this site is:   If you want to help maintain this website:   DONATING

Don't trust a mechanic without an attitude.  Folks who know how to do things have opinions, & opinions aren't changed easily.

If the print font is too small, I suggest you use your Browser's ZOOM feature. 

Reading beyond this point and/or using content in my articles constitutes acceptance of my terms & conditions.

Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum gets OFF & RUNNING!


BMW numbers parts & service by GROUPS & sub-groups.  Showing all of them:

There are many methods of supporting your motorcycle when working on it.  I used a lift at my BMW business, but I don't for my own personal garage-shop, as there is very limited room.  I use the side-stand or center-stand for most work.  I also have an anchoring method that enables me to easily remove & work on almost any part of the motorcycle aft of the front wheel.  This is a link to my method:

R45 & R65 Owner's Manual

R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S, Owner's Manual

Owner's manuals for R1200GS; K1200; K1300 series; F650GS;F800 series; S1000 series, etc.:
Allow to load.  Click on left side for Riders Manuals. Also has accessories, parts, etc.

Deer Whistles

For newer BMW POLICE bikes:  Parts information. Technical information. Service Bulletins.

Proficient at editing E-mails?    Special symbols?  Using Foreign computers?

An Essay on Loud Pipes, etc.

A FEW German words to know

Model Differences over the years

Join the Airheads Beemer Club!

Long Distance Touring

Nerdy Stuff!

Buying or Selling a motorcycle

My 1984 R100RT bike, parts & many special tools, sold.   The present owner & I shared this bike.

Photo Galleries
#1        #2

#3        #4

#5        #6

Temporary'll never know what is HERE!

Motorcycling to Alaska 

Sidestand complaints & problems. Picking up a downed motorcycle. 

Photographs, story, our trip around the USA

Who the HELL is Snowbum?

Prostate Cancer;  REAL FACTS! 
Kept up-to-date!

Proverbs and Sayings

Our Sidecar rig; K1100LT-EML-GT2

Hyperlink,  humorous 'A Winter Tale': CLICK!

Fleischer's Service??

Whitebeard, a short story about one of my bikes, a 1957 R60, originally published by me in 1987 in BMW MOA Owners News.

Snowbum lives at Lake Tahoe, California

Recognition and SAFETY; combined article with Risk Taking.

Military Folks


The Paradox of our Age. By the Dalai Lama

Maintenance schedules for all BMW motorcycles (even the C1 scooters) available on the Internet:

My Airhead maintenance schedule. CLICK!

Purchasing an old Airhead? Getting started on doing your own motorcycle maintenance?


Learn and/or improve your off-road riding?
Even if you never ride off road, some great hints here.  Ever get onto a gravel road, soft stuff, etc?  I deleted my off-road riding article after reading this one.  It is Long, detailed, & good.

Internet Communities.
BMW Motorcycle People.
 Posting/Editing to Mailing Lists, etc.


All the technical information on this site is

If you want to donate to help defray costs, click: DONATING. That page has information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone, and MUCH MORE.

If the print font is too small, I suggest you use your Browser's ZOOM feature.

Purchasing an Airhead?  Want to do your own motorcycle maintenance? COMBINED ARTICLE!     Getting Started

FUEL System in your Airhead motorcycle

(An article on fuel mileage, in depth, is #81)

1A. Fuel filters, petcocks, fuel flow, re-fueling, choke lever on clamshell models.   rev. 06/27/2016

1B. Fuel caps:  Removing a bad cap; R/R locks; venting problems, ETC.  Airheads AND Classic K bikes.   rev. 06/26/2016

2. Luftmeister Auxiliary Fuel Tanks   rev. 08/29/2016

3A.  Bing CV Carburetors, PART 1; GENERAL NOTES, HINTS, leaking tops & dome inserts, tricky enrichener discs/shafts assemblies, aligning butterflies.   rev. 03/07/2017
Be sure to read article 6, below ...... yes, even if you do not have a /5.

3B. Bing Carburetor PART 2; MORE GENERAL NOTES, high altitude JETTING changes, tuning, hard-starting, ETC.     rev. 03/15/2017

3C.  There are NO overhaul nor adjustments articles on this website for the Bing model 53 'slide' carburetors, as used on the R50/5, R60/5, R60/6, and R60/7.   They are straightforward.  They use the SAME floats as the CV carburetors.   For acceleration pump parts check with both BMW & with Bing Agency.   One of the Airlist Members made some 'washers' that fit the acceleration pump, making them of nylon material.  3.556 mm x 0.33 mm.  I have not confirmed the fit, etc.

4.  Bing carburetor Floats.    rev. 05/09/2016

5. Bing dual-independent float kit      rev.  05/09/2016

6. Early Bing CV Carburetors used on R75/5, idle problems, ETC!      rev.  02/14/2017
This article has some information that applies to ALL Bing CV carburetors, so I suggest you READ IT, even if not your model.

7A. Synchronizing Carburetors; the whole story, in depth.    rev.  12/03/2016 

7B.  CABLES! Throttle; clutch; speedometer; tachometer.   Speedometer cable rubber boot at transmission.  Control assembly perch's/wedges.  PLUS: Driveshaft accordion.   rev.  12/07/2016
For control assembly perches/wedges, see item 76.

8. Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum GETS OFF & RUNNING!    rev.  12/10/2016

9A. R80 fuel mileage problems;  R80 airbox modifications.     rev.  10/15/2016

9B.  Lousy Fuel mileage; horsepower to attain high speeds; discussion of  HP, Torque, RAM-AIR, Cd, & LOTS MORE!   Why do motorcycles get such lousy mileage compared to many cars, which are vastly bigger and heavier? How much horsepower and/or torque increase does it take to improve performance?  What about RAM AIR?  Problems that can reduce fuel mileage.  What is the best cruising RPM?  Premium fuels versus mileage and combustion temperatures.    rev. 03/27/2017 

9C.  Gasoline's: This is a link to an article (not by Snowbum).  Truly curious? Technically minded? This long article describes octane, gasoline, leaded fuel, unleaded fuel, additives.  There are interesting things here and there in this article, from which you could also get to other parts/versions by re-arranging the URL:

9D. Fuel System:  Tank cleaning;  premium vs regular; additives; TEL; alcohol; fitting other tanks & seats. Throttle and choke cables.  Fuel hose. Tank lining cleaning & sealing.   rev.  11/19/2016
An article that describes Lead Substitutes, in depth, is here: VALVES

10. Tuning Intake and Exhaust systems.   rev. 09/02/2016

11. Removing/plugging the Pulse Air & Evaporative emissions & fuel shutoff systems. Fuel tank flapper valve.  SHED fuel caps.    rev.  02/12/2017

12. Bing carburetors that urinate....piss/weep/leak....onto your boot, the ground, floor, garage, grass, .....   rev.  08/02/2016

12A & 12B:  EMPTY on purpose

12C. The K & N air filter, the UNI air filter, stock air filters, .....etc.    rev. 08/11/2016

13. The Dell'Orto Carburetor        rev.  05/27/2016
Huge amount of information on how ALL types of carburetors operate, especially needle/slide types, but also vacuum  types and in particular the Dell'Orto carburetors.   SPECIFIC information on Dell'Orto settings for R90S Airheads.  Where to obtain parts.  A link to an article on converting an Airhead to use the Dell'Orto (only the R90S CAME with them).  Links to other carburetor articles of considerable value.  Links to the factory Dell'Orto manuals (ON this website!) are also here.   There are MANY sketches/photos in this article.  Allow TIME to load up if you are on a slow connection.

All the technical information on this site is      DONATING

Electrical System:

Fun Schematic Diagram: Out This Schematic.pdf

14. How to buy & use test lamps and multimeters, basics++.   rev.  09/06/2016

14A. De-mystifying & Troubleshooting BMW Airhead Boxer Motorcycle Electric systems; includes battery and charging information; test lamp use, etc.       rev. 06/19/2016
Lots of good basic 101+ electricity information here; plus troubleshooting.  Also see article 15.

14B. Critique of the ChiTech Electrics School Manual; additional technical information.      rev.  05/22/2016

14C. Just about everything you need to know about how relays actually work.  Includes Bosch/DIN numbered pins information.
NOTE:  When I tried that link, it asked for sign-in, but after a few seconds, that disappeared & the article did appear.

15. Electrical hints, problems; fixes, descriptions of functions, ETC.     rev.  09/01/2016

15-A. WHY 3 phases?  The STOCK Bosch (including TESTED OUTPUT), substitutions, ETC.  More engineering information.   rev. 05/06/2016
Article 15-B just below, has additional discussion about how the alternators and other parts operate together.

15-B. The Alternator/Charging System.   Operation.   Troubleshooting.     rev. 01/30/2017

15-C. Aftermarket Alternators:  installation, capability, performance.  Bosch, Omega, Emerald Island.    rev. 08-07-2016
Refer to 15 -A-B-D-E

15-D. Really BIG alternators on Airheads    rev. 10/15/2016 

15-E. Why do alternator rotors fail?  How to replace a bad rotor.    rev. 10/21/2016
WARNING!!! ...rotor removal tools problems!
What about the reliability of the EnDuralast?  Omega?

16-A. How the starter motor system works (basics); Starter & Starting Problems; Valeo to Bosch; Bosch to Valeo; FITMENT problems--broken nose cones, etc.   Installing a Denso. Starter relays.  Solenoids.  OVERHAUL.     rev. 06/28/2016

16-B. STARTING:  Starter doesn't engage or function?  Starts, or barely, won't stay running properly?   Information on the various starter models & different circuits over the years.  Battery load testing and wiring check using the starter motor.  rev. 11/27/2016
Also see #35.

17. Alternator rotors, stators, brushes, cautions.  DIY!   rev. 05/05/2016

18. Diode Boards & Grounding Wires in depth.  Plus information on testing power diodes     rev. 05/28/2016

19. Alternator 'GEN' lamp circuit & resistor (AND, possibly LED) modifications.   rev. 07/02/2016

20. Testing Voltage Regulators.   High output and/or adjustable regulators.    rev. 12-09-2016

21. Servicing a Bosch Mechanical Voltage Regulators, INCLUDING the /2.   Includes schematic.  rev. 03/03/2017

22. Making it adjustable;  Bosch & Wehrle ELECTRONIC METAL CAN voltage regulators.   HOW-TO-ARTICLE.   rev.  05/22/2016

23A. Increasing the voltage output of the Wehrle PLASTIC voltage regulator (for tinkerers and nerds)       rev.  01/13/2017

23B. Schematic diagram of one version of the electronic voltage regulator    rev.  01/13/2017

24A. Lamps; all types.  Adding relays, lamp substitutions, larger headlights, MODULATORS, sockets, updating /5 headlight, heavier wire, LED's, HID, ETC.     rev. 11/26/2016
See also 24-C and 34.

24B. How the headlight switches & relays work.....finer details of information in article 24A.   Airheads, Oilheads, K, etc.    rev. 07/16/2016

24C. Headlight modulators. Federal Law. California Law. Technical details.  Links to sites with the laws and regulations. ALL types of motorcycle lighting; headlight brightness, links.  LIGHTS EFFECTS ON HUMANS.    rev. 11/26/2016

24D. RISKS AND REWARDS.  Taking risks. Rewards.  A two-part article.  MOTORCYCLE SAFETY.  How to make ourselves more recognizable, conspicuous, & visible.  Downsides to increased visibility?  Help for oncoming driver's speed of recognition.
Understanding the problems.  Pros and cons.  rev. 02/23/2017

25. Replacing a 5 speed neutral switch (& selecting the correct switch)   rev. 09/08/2016

26. Metric & American Wires, Colors, Bosch Codes, wire sources; reading schematics, interpreting connections...etc.    
rev. 03/04/2017

27. INSTALLING AN ACCESSORY ELECTRICAL OUTLET; CAUTIONS!   ALSO: Hella-DIN adaptors with USB output for GPS, cameras, and other devices.       rev. 07/31/2016

28. Ignition Theory; Spark Ignition Systems.   rev. 11/30/2016

29. Ignition timing; automatic advance units for single and dual-plug engines; single spark plug Airheads; points; condensers; amplifiers; COILS, etc!        rev. 11/26/2016

30. IGNITION:  Points; Timing lights;  Ignition Modules; Ignition Canister (rebuilding yourself or sending them out); Coils; Spark Plug Suppressor Caps; Dyna & Boyer, etc. Ignitions;  rubber sealing strip; sources for modules & Hall sensors & springs; testing & troubleshooting (including HIGH IDLE RPM); Points Boosters/Amplifiers.   rev. 03/05/2017
For timing by means of piston movement ...see 72. 

Some of the Hall sensor information applies to the K and Oilhead bikes.   I recommend you read both 29 & 30, above; as an understanding of both articles may well be needed if you are contemplating changes or repairs.

Here is a link to an article on the diagnosis and repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition sending unit.  This article has some explanations & details that may help you understand the Airhead electronic ignition.

31. Dual Plugging: Ignition; milling heads, shaving cylinders, etc.  rev. 01/29/2017

32. SPARK PLUGS; Airheads, Pre-Airheads, Classic K bikes.  Head threads; torques; ANTISEIZE (OR NOT); spark plug caps & wire assemblies; resistor & non-resistor spark plugs; Interchangeability charts & part numbers.      rev. 11/24/2016

33. Ampmeters (ammeters) vs. Voltmeters. GEN lamps? (discussion, problems, etc).   rev.  05/08/2016

34. Adding Running Lamp Function to Turn Signals  rev.  11/13/2016

35. New batteries, ALL TYPES, including lithium.  Filling a flooded battery & initializing properly. Which battery to purchase. Sources.   Usage.  Chargers (SMART or not).  Peculiarities.  De-sulfating.  Charging voltages.  How to Load Test a Battery; ETC.      rev.  09/16/2016.
See 16B for how to load test a battery using the starter motor ....although most IS covered in #35.

36. Accessing the headlight bucket on RS/RT; cleaning headlamp & glass; aiming headlight; accessing headlight wiring.   rev.  07/15/2016

37. Slash 5 (/5) starter relay 'cricket' noise & starting problems.  Slash 5 (/5) bikes with stock starter relays SHOULD RECEIVE THIS MODIFICATION       rev. 11/19/2016

37A. Tachometers.  Connections, wire colors, retrofitting to earlier models.  Checking calibration (mechanical OR electronic type). REPAIRS.     rev. 12/03/2016

37B. Airheads and K bikes:  Broken front and/or rear brake light switches.  Stiff K bike throttles for 1985.    rev. 05/17/2016

38A. CAN-Bus, OBD-II.  What is it?   How it works.   What about the future?  WiFi in cars?  WiFi in motorcycles?  What is really coming, soon. Telematics??     CAUTIONS on desulfation mode on Smart Chargers.     rev. 05/21/2016

For section 38B onwards to the end of items numbered 38--

AIRHEADS electrical schematic diagrams:

R80G/S, R45, R65 & R80ST, are all similar.

R65, ST, GS & G/S instrument pods are similar.

RS & RT are identical to each other for any one particular year.

R50/5, R60/5 & R75/5 use same diagrams, but there are two, the later one has fuses.

R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S will all be very similar.

/6 & later with style of pods NOT like the R65, ST, G/S, GS, will look nearly alike; but there ARE differences in functions display lamps vertical order and tach wiring connections.  The brake warning lamp is not on 1980's and later pods.

/7 is mostly similar to the last of the /6 series.

BMW's schematics for early eighties bikes MAY have errors.   Example:  BMW's diagrams for 1981 & later, showing IGNITION POINTS, not ignition module, for a particular model.  1981+ models actually had electronic ignition.

I have obtained schematic diagrams posted on this website from a variety of sources; including a large number of them direct from BMW.  NONE are from the otherwise excellent Chitech BMW Electric School Manual, which is still available; and is STILL 'THE' best manual on Airhead, and general electrics; most who own one use it often as a PRIME RESOURCE.   BUT...MANY bike model schematics in the rear of that Manual are difficult to read & some are fuzzy.  I DO recommend you purchase that manual, see my manuals article:; or, see There is a critique, with some corrections, that I made for that manual:

I likely have every schematic diagram for every Airhead (& most other BMW models to 1996 or so).  My collection includes most of the various world versions. There are literally HUNDREDS of diagrams,  including accessories ...even such as the early Airheads when they were available with Avon fairings.  Diagrams include those for heated grips, special lighting, & Authorities (Police) models.   There are CONSIDERABLE similarities between various models.  There are LIKELY enough schematics already on this website to enable you to work on your bike.  Note the red box on left side, above, listing similarities.

If you absolutely need to contact me for a specific diagram, or perhaps something is not clear to you about a schematic on my website, you may ask me.  I would like to know what the problem is, if any, whether an interpretation or specific ill; AND, if you need a schematic for the main frame diagram, or engine or some sub or accessory item that is not already covered on my website.  I will need to know your BMW model, its year, and if a USA or Euro.   It would be helpful if you knew the model code that BMW uses for your motorcycle.  If you do not know the model code, which is helpful and saves me time, DO, then, furnish the full serial number or VIN number.  Sometimes questions must be answered by referring to my electrical hints article #15, or some other article in the Electricals section of my website.


Link to a German website, with many Airhead (& some R1100 oilhead & other) electrical schematic diagrams ...and MORE than just that.  There is a LOT of information besides schematics on this German website. The site contains information on a WIDE variety of subjects, not just electrical items. You will probably have to snoop around a bit & click on the Shaltplane or Shaltplaene. The site keeps getting re-arranged & the actual address for the diagrams to be selected by you keep varying. Might be best to just go to the homepage: & start from there. But, you can try the address below, it may work:  These are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily exactly for your USA motorcycle or for other countries. Use these schematics in conjunction with what you find on my website.

Links for more electrical schematics, etc., are found in article #80, below.

BMW schematics MAY show things NOT on YOUR bike, which were special equipment or added accessories.   Special equipment items have their own article here, see #38B, just below!


38B. Miscl. Electrical schematics: Hazard flasher system, fold-out fog/driving lights, heated grips, VDO instruments.  Replacing a /6 left-side handlebars switch.   Substitute voltmeters and clocks.    rev.  11/07/2016

38C. Schematic diagrams in 3 formats: .gif; .pdf; .bmp; for R90S, R60S, R75/6, R90/6; for 1975 & into 1976.     rev.  03/22/2016

Link to someone else's diagram for the above bikes:  This version is in pdf format & has the wiring & items shown in various colors.  It is quite differently displayed than the above 38C diagram.

38C+. Schematic diagram for 1974 model, /6 series, EURO, type 0271 

38D. Schematic diagram for the 1978 Airheads, as .pdf, includes legend.

38E. Schematic diagram for the /5 electricals, last model, late 1972 & 1973. THIS IS THE FUSED MODEL.  pdf
see 38F

38F. Schematic Diagrams for both early and late /5.  Early model had no fuses.  Set your browser to expand the image as needed, it WILL be cleanly displayed.
see 38E

Schematic Diagram for the late /5, as a .gif; model WITH fuses: CLICK
see 38E

38G. Schematic diagram, 1981 R100, R100CS, as .pdf.  SIMILAR to many of this era. 

Legend for the numbered and lettered "items" in that schematic: legend

Early eighties schematic diagram, of the colored type of presentation:

38H. Schematics & wires colors diagrams & descriptions: 1981-1985 R65, R65LS, R45, R80ST, ETC.  (.jpg, & .pdf)  rev. 10/14/2016 81 R65 Wiring Diagram 1-16-09 (1).pdf

38i. Schematic diagram for 1979-1980 R100RS, series 0427 as shipped to various countries, full base diagram, pdf format
see 38J

38J.  Main lighting diagram.   pdf format.  Covers above (38i) into the early 1980's.
see 38i

38K. PDF diagrams for R100GSPD:


38L. Schematic diagram and Legend, 1989 and later R100RS, R100RT, USA.    pdf format, TWO pages in one

38M. Replacing a /5 ignition switch with a round barrel type switch:

Here is a link for a KIT to basically do a barrel switch installation:

38N.  Radio codes:  Key OFF.  PRESS and HOLD "M"; turn key on.  If code does not display, contact dealer or radio shop.   You should have written the code down when you purchased the bike! came with it!

38O.  Heated Clothing:   At this time I CAN NOT recommend Gerbings products, due to problems, reported from MANY, with personnel, workmanship, etc.  I CAN recommend Widder heated clothing products.   Aerostitch products are also good.   See my references article.

38P.      empty on purpose


Electrical contact cleaners and treatments are in article 73.

Mechanical?  Electrical?  BOTH? .....NEITHER?

39A.  F, OT, S, and Z marks on your Flywheel (clutch carrier); re-marking, alignment, degreeing camshafts. RE-INSTALLING Flywheel (or Clutch Carrier)      rev.  11/28/2016
For Automatic Timing Units, in depth, see article 29.
Mis-adjusted carburetors and/or sticky automatic timing units can cause high rpm, typically after full warm-up.  See article #30, which has a section on this problem.

39B.  Push-starting:   See 47

39C.  How to safely transport your motorcycle (in a truck or trailer, etc.)   rev.  02/02/2017

39D.  ALASKA ....a LOT of information on trips to Alaska, that you NEED if going there;   rev.  05/03/2016

39E.  Buried traffic light detection loops; problems with motorcycles triggering them.   rev.  12/23/2016

39F.  NERDY stuff      rev.  09/07/2016

39G.  /5 instruments article on disassembly and repairs, etc:

39H.  For information on timing an engine via measured piston movement, see item 72 below.

"Bookmark" (Favorites) the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at right now.  The HOMEPAGE is

Revision/Editing dates are listed at the bottom of most articles.  The homepage contains access to things NOT on, nor accessible, from the Index of Technical Articles list page you are now looking at.  Going from the HomePage to an article, via the link at the bottom of the homepage, will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of ANY article.  PRES F5 to ensure a total refresh after the page you want is displayed.

Mechanical Systems, and 'other stuff':

There are many methods of supporting your motorcycle for ease in working on it. Some use motorcycle lifts. I certainly did that at my BMW business but I don't for my own personal garage-shop, as there is very limited room. I use the side-stand or center-stand for most work. I also have a front tire/wheel anchoring method that enables me to easily remove & work on almost any part of the motorcycle aft of the front wheel. Link to my method:

40. Setting Valves; how to do it correctly.  ALSO,  what happens when a valve comes apart & tries to destroy the engine.    rev. 12/12/2016
After reading the article, I recommend reading article 60 section 1; 60-6; 60-5.

41. Overheating, excessive idle time, etc.     rev.  06/15/2016

42. The pre-1970 slinger service; including the /2 slinger service.    rev.  11/18/2016

43. Transmission input (clutch) splines, throwout bearing, clutch arm cleaning, lubrication & inspection, adjusting swing arm.  Early swing arm bearing seal rings.   Rev.  08/05/2016.
CLUTCH article, Section 60, item 9, below, has extensive information on the throw-out bearings, and "everything clutch".
See Article 7B about control cables.
New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and all Airheads crankshaft and Classic K bikes at alternator drive:

44. Maintaining paintwork, aluminum, windscreen & helmet visor/shield.  Drilling/cutting plastics such as a windshield. Repair cracked luggage & fairings.  Pesky hollow rivets.  Sandblasting?  Cleaning aluminum wheels.  Noisy fairing/dash?  BENT LEVERS?  Washing the bike.  Black plastic and trim.  Cleaning grunged-up exhaust systems.     rev.   05/04/2016
Article 73 has information on products to use to maintain plastic visors, shields, ETC.    Also see article 75A

45. Rear Wheel Splines; Rear Drive Output Splines; Rear Drive Oil Leaks/Oil levels; Replacing a Rear Drive Left Seal, Inner Seal, Nose Seal; Oil Leaks with Drum Brakes; Leaking oil drain plugs; Monolever & Paralever Cardan Bearings; Rear Drive overhaul, Rivets, Wheel Cup/Splines; ETC.     Rev.  10/16/2016

46. Exhaust pipe finned (spider) nuts; problems removing, cleaning/lubrication, etc.  PLUS recommendations for exhaust replacements    rev.  01/20/2017

See also, under E for EXHAUST

47. Driveshaft Bolts, Washers, Torque, tools, push-starting, etc.   rev.  05/29/2016

48. Ring & pinion gears, ratios, speedometers/odometers, (instrument pod repairs-link), instrument numeral and pointer colors, rpm, road speeds.   rev. 01/21/2017        Also see article 39G

49. Oil Transfers .... Oil moving someplace other than where it belongs.  Water in the oil. Transmission & rear drive lubricants.  Installing speedometer boot at the transmission.    rev:  09/27/2016

50.  EMPTY, on purpose

50A. Oiling system; oil consumption; thermostat; cooler; pressure bypass valve in filter canister area; remote & other oil filter kits, ETC.    rev. 09/26/2016

50B. BMW Airhead Oiling System:  Sketches; Descriptions; Caps; Breather (disc and reed types and installation); Thermostats   rev. 09/27/2016

50C. Oil Pans; oil pan gaskets; oil pan threads; oil capacity; dipsticks; oil pickups; windage.   rev. 11/09/2016

50D. Oil Coolers, including installation; oil canisters in brief       rev.  05/25/2016

51A. Oil & filter change.  'Reading filters'.  The "$2000 O-ring" ($3500+ if you ruin your crankshaft).  Thermostat covers; LOTS more! ...INCLUDING spin-on oil filter conversions.  Filter Changes.  Reading oil filter elements.      rev.  09/19/2016

51B. Oil filters, canisters, ETC.   Information on changing your filter, types of oils for your airhead, oil additives; gasoline additives, ETC.    rev.  09/22/2016    Suggested reading:  51A and 51C

51C.  Oil lubrication tech.  Oil recommendations; ZDDP & ZDTP; synthetics; Airheads; K-bikes; CARS; etc.     rev. 09/25/2016

51D. Oil viscosities, viscosity indexes, engine oils, gear oils, suspension/fork fluids, shock absorber fluids, SAE, SUS, Cst, some ZDDP values,  GL4,  GL5.  BMW factory recommendations.  Brands & ZDDP values.  Long term storage.   rev. 01/12/2017 

52. Pinging (Pinking); LUGGING; piston detonation.  Causes, effects, cures & fixes.    rev. 10/03/2016

53. Brakes; everything about them.  Rebuilding ATE MC.   SS lines.  Conversions/upgrades.     rev.  03/20/2017

54-. Wheels, Tires, Axles, Hubs, Bearings, Steering Head, Forks, Seals/spacers, tires, dampers, ETC!    See #44 for wheel paint recommendations, etc. & wheel coating information is in the chemicals article.

Section 54-1:  19" wheel recall      rev. 10/16/2016

Section 54-2A:  Wheel spoke lacing and alignment of hub & rim   rev. 10/24/2016

Section 54-2B:  The confusion over wheel spoke sizes and specifications.  rev. 01/15/2017

Section 54-3.  WHEELS; Wheel Spacers; Seals;  HINTS, ETC.   rev. 01/15/2017
Also contains information on swapping various years & models of wheels (except Lester's, see 54-7 below).  I suggest reading Section 54-4.

Section 54-4:  Wheel bearing preload & servicing wheel bearings. Some other wheel information also, such as on the Speedi-Sleeve    rev. 03/01/2017
I suggest you read Section 54-3 and look at Section 54-9.

Section 54-5:  Tire tests & recommendations.   Hydroplaning; tire width; top hat spacers; nitrogen. REAL tire testing!  Tested tires by brand/model.  Fender brace.  Selecting tires.   Things you never knew.    rev. 02/15/2017
I suggest you read Section 54-3 and Section 54-6.
More tire information will also be found in Section 54-12; including a section on vibration/thrumming, etc.

Section 54-6:  Tubeless versus tubes. Rim shapes.  VERY detailed article    rev. 11/07/2016
IN DEPTH discussion on going tubeless on Snowflake tube type rims, and every other sort of combination of tires, tubes ....and no tubes.

Section 54-7:  Lester wheels       rev.  08/25/2016

Section 54-8A:  Steering dampers.  Suspension.  Shock absorbers & springs.    rev. 11/08/2016

Section 54-8B:  Ikon and Koni shock absorbers spring chart; a pdf file

Section 54-9:  Airhead Wheel Bearing Clinic, BMWMOA National Rally, July 2005.   Critique of BMW-ON magazine articles of 2004.     rev.  01/14/2017
See sections 54-3, 54-4, & 54-7.

Section 54-10A.  Front forks internals, alignment, stiction, braces, gaiters, cleaning & lubricating (or replacing) steering head bearings.  Springs.  Stiction.  Fork sag.  Modifications.     Alignment/adjustment of rear Swing Arm.      rev. 02-14-2017

Section 54-10B.  Front Forks.  Oil amounts.  Pre-Airheads.  Airheads.  K1, K75, K100, K1100    rev. 03/29/2017

Section 54-10C.   Instability; weaving, wobbling, tank slappers; the REAL information.  rev. 8/08/2016

Section 54-11.  Hyperlink to Anton's website wheel balancing article

Section 54-12.  Tire installation & repairs.  Tire pressures.  Studding.  VIBRATION.  THRUMMING.  Mudflaps.   rev. 03/27/2017
See Section 54-10C for much more on tire created problems.

Section 54-13.  Brush guards (hand guards). BMW offers its own, and this part number is for the black ones for the Airhead GS models, adaptable to many other models:  71-60-2-315-870.  BMW also offers both black and white versions of several types and numbers, and many can be made to fit.

57. Noise Silencing Pads For The Cylinder Fins    rev. 10/13/2016

58. Importing a motorcycle; EPA, DOT & Customs     rev. 07/30/2016

59.  Empty, on purpose.

59A. Transmissions (and everything associated with them)     rev. 01/02/2017
Additional information:  New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output & Airheads crankshaft & K bikes at the alternator drive:

59B. Emergency Shifting Tools for 5 speed transmissions       rev. 07/27/2016  
Transmission won't shift?


Section 60-1:  Disassembly & assembly.  Heads, pistons, rings, cylinders, break-in; Helicoils;  spigots (intake stubs); Timeserts; case threads for cylinder studs; rocker arms; rocker blocks.      02/18/2016
You may be interested in reading Sections 40; 60-3, 60-4, 60-5, and 60-6

Section 60-2:  Flywheel (& also Clutch Carrier) removal/replacement WARNING; main seal & O-ring. Oil pump & its cover & seal.  Rod bolts.  Re-installation of Flywheel, seal installation photos.  Crankshafts in depth.  Factory bulletin on new style seals.   Front crank bearing carrier.  Grabby clutch, vibrations.  Hard shifting.  Idle rpm change with clutch lever use due to excessive crankshaft end-play.  Specifications & parts numbers for crankshaft thrust washers. Crankshaft rotation in degrees versus piston movement   ....ETC.     rev. 02/08/2017
This article should be used together with Section 62.

New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output & Airheads crankshaft ...and K bikes at the alternator drive:

Section 60-2A:  Lightened flywheel information         rev. 08/26/2016

Section 60-3:  CYLINDERS.  Plates, shims, gaskets, sealants.  Measuring cylinders without special micrometers.  Ridge removal. New rings.     rev. 05/26/2016

Section 60-4:  Pistons (including swapping heads-cylinders-pistons), rings, pins, clips, keepers, decarboning.   rev. 10/05/2016

Section 60-5:  Valves, valve seats; leaded fuels; guides, valve springs, aftermarket valves, noisy valves, bead-blasting,  ETC.   rev. 01/11/2016
You may be interested in reading Sections 60-1, 60-4, and 60-6

Section 60-6:  Rocker arms, breakage, rocker arm shafts & bushes/bearings, valve gear, pushrod tubes, cylinder heads.  Aligning the /5 valve gear.    rev. 07/15/2016
You may be interested in reading Sections 40, 60-1, and 60-5

Section 60-7:  Camshafts, broken cam tips, cam sprockets, lifters (followers), alternator & cam seals, crank nose bearing.  ZDDP.   Sports Cam installations, duration, timing, etc.      rev.  05/20/2016

Section 60-8:  Replacing pushrod tubes, seals & collars;  pushrods; valve cover studs; sealing cylinders.       rev. 10/12/2016

Section 60-9:  Clutch, clutch arm, flywheel, clutch carrier, bolts, upgrades,  throw-out bearings;  push-rod; crankshaft end play spacers; 1981 clutch/carrier problems; clutch cable & fixing potential cable breakage & new cable problems; stuck clutch, clutch lever bushing; preventing broken transmission ears.  Adjustments.          Rev.  05/24/2016
I recommend that you read Section 43

Section 60-10.  MOTOR MOUNT SPACERS.    There are 4 motor mount spacers on Airheads.  The two plain ones are identical & fit on the rear mount bolt (longer bolt).  There are two that have welded-on spring attachment places.  ONE has TWO such points, it goes on the left front & is where the side-stand & center-stand springs attach.  The curved part faces DOWN, curves towards you.   The other has only one attachment point, & that is for the center-stand spring is fitted on the right front ...the hole facing rearward.  There is a side-stand clip that fits under the left rear nut, instead of the waverly lockwasher that is on the other side.   Spacers go between the engine and the frame.  Torque nuts to 55 footpounds.

61. Long Distance Touring.  Dealing with Weather.  SEATS.       rev. 08/24/2016

62. Replacing a timing chain, guides, tensioner and sprockets       rev. 02/23/2017
Use this article with the cams article, Article 60-7, and, ESPECIALLY with Article 60-2

63. U-joint Phasing Photos.  Paralever Driveshaft models and any driveshaft with Universal Joints.    rev. 10/01/2016

64. REYNOLDS:  ride-off center-stands; luggage racks; tour rests; bag mounts; trailer hitches, etc.  Extensive!    rev:   10/19/2016

65. TOOLS (extensive information)     rev. 02/10/2017
See also the references article, article 78A

66. Making a useful hydraulic jack, cheaply!    rev. 07/16/2016

67A. ID NUMBERS!   Engine, frame, & other numbers.  How to read them.  HOW TO IDENTIFY YOUR BIKE.    rev. 07/17/2016

67B. Model differences 1970-1995 (also some pre-1970).   PLUS: Weights, capacities, problems.    rev. 10/16/2016

68A. Hardware and many other parts.  Not just metal parts.  Sources & information not in 78 and 78A.  Pozi & Phillips screws DISCUSSION.  Locking methods for bolts, etc. ...discussion.    rev.   07/12/2016

68B. The ROUNDEL; sizes, part numbers; BMW COMPANY HISTORY (THE REAL STORY).    rev. 10/22/2016

69. Parts Coding Symbols.  How to read the symbols on ETK, fiche, etc.    rev.  09/30/2016

70. BMW Paint Codes 1970-?    Paint, sources, colors, codes, etc.     rev. 10/01/2016

71A. Torque Specifications & problems; conversion factors; using torque wrenches. Calibration checks.    rev. 12/19/2016

71B. Torque values for nuts, bolts, etc.       rev. 02/10/2017  

71C. Changing torque wrench range; adjustment correction using extensions.   Example for Airhead universal joint flange.   rev. 07/31/2016

72. Formulas & conversion factors; including ignition timing versus piston movement    rev. 06/24/2016 

73. Chemicals.  Hand cleaners.  Removing old labels.  Penetrating oils (NOT oils for engine, gearbox, final drive).  Additives for oil & gasoline. Fuel tank repairs/treatments.  Brake fluid. Chassis & Spline Greases. Electrical Contact Treatments. Anti-seize. Extensive information on Loctite.  Sealants including RTV.  Waxes, Plastic polishes.  Drilling plastics, etc.     rev.  08/07/2016

74. Maintaining your leather items      rev. 08/25/2016

75A. Luggage, windshields, locks & keys (except fuel caps), instruments, mirrors, etc.    rev.  08/28/2016
SEE article 1B for details and photos on gas cap problems!
See article 44 and article 73 on many allied things not covered in 75A.
  "L" for luggage for more information.
See K bike section.

75B. Albert mirrors       rev. 05/03/2016

76. Those pesky easy to lose WEDGES that fit at the handlebar controls!  How to make one.  This is a link to a sketch in .pdf.
The part numbers for these wedges are:   32-72-2-072-233; 32-72-1-232-929; and 32-72-1-242-626, etc.

77A. Modifications for performance, reliability, fuel mileage, street/race:  Engine, Clutch, Suspension, Braking, Transmission, etc.        rev. 09/04/2016

77B. Krauser 4 valve cylinder heads and pistons     rev. 08/18/2016 

78. Useful URL's & sources for BMW motorcyclists: groups, forums, parts, people, websites, companies, services.  rev. 01/08/2017

78A. REFERENCES:   ADDITIONAL RESOURCES, in depth.   More URL's;  e-mail addresses; contacts & descriptions; where to get things, service, etc.        Rev. dates are not listed for this article.

78B. MANUALS AND LITERATURE; SOURCES, DESCRIPTION, CRITIQUE's, etc.    Not just BMW.     rev.  02/28/2017
Also  >>> see article 78 and 78A.

78C.  Editing text and E-mail messages.  ASCII.   Printing or sending special characters from your computer. Using foreign computers: where is that @ symbol?       rev.  08/16/2016

79A. Side-stands.  Center-stands.  Stock.  Aftermarket.     rev. 02/18/2017

79B. Sidestand complaints/problems.   Picking up a downed motorcycle.     rev:  10/03/2016.

80.  empty on purpose.

81.  Lane Splitting & Sharing, Lane Filtering, White Lining California (where it is quasi-legal), and around the world.     rev. 08/21/2016

82A. INSURANCE:  motorcycles & sidecar rigs (even cars & trucks); lots of things you probably did not think about, or know! PLUS:  Negotiating with the insurance company.      rev:  08/09/2016

82B. What To Do & NOT do, right away, if you have been in a motorcycle accident.  Advice from a Motorcyclist's Lawyer!  Rev. 01/13/2017.

83. Bob's 'sleeper' R75/5.   The radical supercharged R75/5     rev. 11/20/2016

84. See 7B about control & other cables & problems.

85. Foreign travel:  Using foreign computer keyboards:  see article 78C

86. empty on purpose

You got this far & STILL did not see what you wanted?  You could scan further down (good to do to see what is available), or:


Oilhead motorcycle section:

O1. ABS brakes problems?   Here is a link to an article on the R1100 and R1150, how to reset the ABS:
ALSO See K14A & K14B in the K-bike section, well below.

O2. Salvage yards, for oilhead parts, etc:

O3. See article #30, above, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.
How to go about repairing the ignition sensors:

O4.  R1100RT: LCD Temperature & Fuel Gauge Calibration; Fuel Sender Testing & Cleaning, troubleshooting    rev. 10/14/2016.

O5. Links to website with good tech for Oilheads, such as the ABS system; TDC locating mandrel, ignition timing box, etc.     First, the main link:

This next link is to an article on the same website; diagnosis & repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition sending unit.

You may want to refer to my own extensive article:  IGNITION

O6. Bleeding/servicing the integrated brakes system:

O7. Link to German website, with LOTS of Airhead (and some R1100 oilhead, etc.).  German electrical schematic diagrams.  Using in conjunction with the diagrams on the Snowbum website. There is a LOT of information besides schematics on this German website.   Click on Shaltplan, shown in red on that page, for your model:

O8. Death Rattle:  Does your R850, R1100, or R1150 Oilhead, 1993-2004, make a loud rattle upon startup, or on the road?
This article describes the fix, with photos.  The rear-view engine cut-away photo is a REAR-view of an Oilhead motor.  The left tensioner assembly is located on top of the cylinder, "facing" downward, in a position that allows oil to drain out of the tensioner sleeve during shutdown. The right side tensioner assembly faces upward from the bottom, it remains full of oil during shutdown.  This is why the tensioner that is typically replaced is the left side one.  You can get a complete KIT at a good price, with the CORRECT UPDATED PARTS that were the final improvement method (not the intermediate BMW attempt that used some NLA parts) from Tom Cutter at his BMW repair center: This converts to the final version using the tensioner sleeve & piston assembly, from the R1200S and RT (not R1200C).   After installing, the noise will cease, and you can forget about the damage that could be caused by a timing chain tensioner failure.  The conversion is to Hexhead parts. If the upper left guide totally fails, the engine can be destroyed.  You want to fix things well before that happens.  Replacement of that upper left guide, by BMW repair manual information, means splitting the cases.  For those with death rattle noises, and cam chain guide rail problems (and this information should be seen for information EVEN IF you are only replacing the tensioner), here is a lengthy video, that explains a lot ....and to possibly fix the engine if you have that rail damaged, without splitting the cases.  I suggest you watch the entire video.

O9. DELETED, on purpose.

O10. Hyperlink to an article on what belts were used, which to use, how to adjust them, & at what interval replace them, etc.

O11. Oilhead HINTS      rev.  09/25/2016

O12. Replacing an oil level sight glass rev. 11/18/2016

O13. Tool to lock flywheel and TDC locator:

O14. There is a new-style Teflon oil seal being used on ALL BMW motorcycles. I expect it will be used at more places for replacement purposes as time goes on:   SI-00-053-88-new-style-seals.pdf

O15. Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.  Rev. 11/13/2016

O16. Control Cables problems.    (Same as article 7B, Airheads section)

O17. empty on purpose

For information on electrics in general, see article 14A.  Schematics are in article O7; and links to other sources are also on this website.

For batteries see the new battery article, 35, well above.

All the technical information on this site is: 

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CLASSIC K-bike motorcycle section:
CLASSIC K-BIKES ARE K MODELS K1, K75, K100, K1100 ...and to some extent, the K1200.

Snowbum does not work on, nor generally have knowledge about the following BMW motorcycles:
F series; K 1200; S1000R; HPx; K1300; K1600 series.   This site can be quiet.  Snowbum occasionally posts/responds here.    Forum style.  Classic K bikes.   Active, lots of opinions, watch for awhile to sort out who knows, who guesses, etc.  Snowbum does not participate on this forum.,2252.0.htm  Factory K75 and K100 service manuals.   The so-called BIG LIST.  Has big separate sections on tech. Lots of K bike stuff (as well as other BMW models). There is also an E-mailing techlist, where Snowbum participates occasionally.   Main page is seldom changed, that is, hardly ever anything added to it.   The FORUMS, however, ARE active.   A copy of the entire BMW-produced K1100LT, K1100RS repair manual, dated 5/1999.   Classic K bikes model history, K1, K75, K100, K1100. There are some things missing, & some that need embellishment, etc, such as there were changes in the rod lengths & pistons, the radiator got more fins, etc.  But, Anton's history list is a good one.  Use the main site, link just below, for access to his technical articles for Airheads & Oilheads, etc. THIS IS A REALLY GOOD WEBSITE!  Anton is in the business of repairing BMW bikes, and I can recommend him for such work.

K1.  Starter motor sprag clutch problems in classic K bikes     rev.  08/19/2016  

K2.  Hints, advice, parts, LARGE variety of subjects!      rev.  08/17/2016

K3A.  A version of the K100 schematic:   K100 Schematic Diagram, pdf format

K3B.  K100LT, schematic diagram of entire bike.   This is a pdf, made directly from BMW's own information.  While it is for the UK ABS version, in general, it covers the 1987-1989 era, and probably more.

K3C.  This is the LEGEND for the above, K3B, schematic diagram.  Three pages in Microsoft WORD format.

K3D.  Heated Grips.  This diagram/schematic is for the R100GS, but has the same basics for all the BMW motorcycles that I know of.  It is a simple diagram to use on the K-bikes, just not exact colors, fuses, wiring, perhaps, as on your particular bike.

K4.  Brake squealing, any model, and very especially the K75? ...see article 53 which DOES include information for K75, & all classic K bikes, for that matter. That article also has a lot of information on bleeding the brakes!

K5.  Salvage yard, for parts, etc.:    (973)-775-3495.
Some other salvage yards are listed in my References article (article 78A).
You can also try:

K6.  See article 30 WAY ABOVE, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.

K7.  U-joint Phasing photos, any U-joint driveshaft system, including Paralever Driveshaft models     rev. 10/01/2016

K8.  K bike instrument pod.  Calibrating speedometer.  Clock modification for 12 hour mode.  Radio codes.    rev. 08/18/2016

K9.  K bike fork oil requirements     rev. 08/14/2016.   Front forks oil changing:  See article in Section 54-10B.

K10.  Fitting handguards brushguards to a K1100LT  (and earlier models)     rev.   08/14/2016


K11A.  Troubleshooting the LE-Jetronic classic K bikes (2 valve K75, 2 valve K100).  HUGE amount of technical information, and even a step-by-step article, but you MIGHT (?) have to delve deeply into searching the site to find things, especially if authored by VOGEL.  The website may, by the time YOU read this, allow you to at least browse without registering (?).  There is probably a link at the bottom of the article so you can register.  The articles are VERY MUCH WORTH ANY EFFORT AT FINDING AND LOOKING AT THEM ....and, may be very easy to find by now. page/K100 troubleshooting Starting.pdf

Having access problems, or? You can try registering at:
If you have trouble finding the troubleshooting article, look for Vogel's article entitled:  "EFI/Electronic ignition K100 2V troubleshooting".

Here is a link for troubleshooting, that seems to be an abbreviated version of one of the above forum's articles, link above, but some charts & information WERE MISSING, strangely, in the following version.  I'd not use this one, unless you have problems with the above several links.  The charts, etc., might now be here ....I have not bothered to compare the links again.

K11B.  Troubleshooting the K1100, or, any early K with the Motronic article by Frank Warner, detailing what he did regarding his high fuel consumption.  The link worked in Dec. 2016.  The article was dated in 2002.  It is a cached-mirrored copy ...allow it to load, it may take part of a minute to do so:


K13.  Changing Coolant on a Classic K bike, how-to article.  Discussion about various coolants.  Heat on your legs.  Heat insulation under the tank, etc.     rev. 08/14/2016
ALSO contains notes on why the coolant job could be effected by updating of early K bikes from a 400 watt alternator to a 700 watt alternator, ETC.

K14A.   Repairs to fuel injection computer brains & ABS computer brains.  Lots of good testing advice here too!   Will get you to the main page, lots of technical information there!

Look at both of the above links, then Contact Tosi at:  Highly recommended by several people.  A place in the Netherlands that does all sorts of modules/computer brains, etc.  BBA Re-manufacturing; 300 Myles Standish Blvd.; Tauntonk, MA 02780.  (866) 573-2740;  (508)-822-4490   I have had at least TWO different sender reports that do NOT recommend these folks, and NONE that DO recommend.

K14B.  If you are having ABS codes problems, before you jump to conclusions, remove both ABS relays, clean internal contacts and clean the relay connection spades too, and add contact cleaner to them.  This is also good advice for the ABS main computer plug connections. Here are a couple of articles to look at:  Scan down for the ABS articles

K15.  Ignition.  Considerable amount of information on the module & Hall devices; and, how to set ignition timing:

NOTE:  There is an article on this website that contains information, in depth, on how to check/adjust ignition timing when the ignition timing is specified in piston distance movement:

See Airhead section, article 30 regarding the ignition circuitry, lots of useful information on the Hall element, etc. The following article, while for a R1100RT oilhead, is useful for K bike owners; it is illustrated & is about replacing the Hall sensors for a R1100RT repair, & is SIMILAR for a K bike:

If your Classic K-bike is having irregular ignition problems, & you can't find anything wrong with the ignition, remove the valve cover & check to be sure that the cover is grounded to the engine by means of a coil spring that is mounted to a cam bearing mount.

K16.  Adjusting the steering head bearings on a K75, K100, K1100:

K17.  Brake light switch problems ....see article well above, 37B.

If you have a 1985 K bike, and a stiff throttle, also read that article 37B ...yes, a brakes switch article!   Information is well down the article.

K18.  Hyperlink to a forums-type website.

K19.  Locks, gas caps, KEYS, etc.    See articles #1B (caps) & #75A (luggage), WAY above, that covers all of these things in depth.


K21.  Doing a rear main seal job is involved.   Here is a video of the procedure to R/R the main seal on a Classic K bike.  Useful for anyone wanting to know what/how in taking apart the bike ....even if not doing a rear main seal job.  In GERMAN for sound. The mechanical support for the bike is flimsy in my opinion.  They found one of the headers broken case you wonder about the exhaust pipe being 'shown'.

K22.  Information for Classic K bikes, NOT just the K100.  Many Service Bulletins here too:

K23.  A lot of K bike information.   Has wiring diagrams and a lot of other information.  In German, but very useful!  Covers all the Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200).  Lots more than that.  Wiring diagrams are under Shaltplän.  Use Google translator.

K24.  How to replace an oil level sight glass    rev. 11/18/2016

K25A.  Service Information Bulletin SI-2630R.   Failure to use all fuel in the fuel tank, whining noise from the fuel pump.   This is a link to a PDF file on this website. The sketches are not very clear, so look at them with a critical eye!
If you can furnish a really nice clear copy of that bulletin, let me know.

K25B.  Replacing a fuel pump:  K1, K75, K100, K1100     rev. 08/14/2016

K26.  Engine oil, & lubrication in GREAT DEPTH:  see article 51-C

K27.  Worn rear drive splines?  Bad U-joint?  Upgrade? drives.htm I suggest you look at all of the videos!  Two videos on K75 and K100 rear drive spline servicing, Bruno's driveshaft and rear spline rebuilding, etc.

Doing a K75 rear drive input spline and driveshaft and swing arm lubrication?  This is a link to a how-to-video, in German, but you will understand it.   Note that normally one does not pull the swing arm, in this video I suspect it was done to replace the boot, and check the swing arm bearings.

K28.  New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and airheads crankshaft ...and K bikes at the alternator drive:

K29.  Link to a 6 part video series on how to disassemble and reassemble a Classic K-bike, to do an input spline service.  Includes a lot of service and commentary on things the servicer found on this bike along the way.  Lots of good hints.   Very complete, including the swearing.

K30.  Control cables problems  (same as Airheads 7B)    rev. 12/07/2016

K31.  Re-keying locks, especially fuel tank lock.  Problems with the fuel cap; and other details.  Also:  see my article 1B (caps) and 75A (luggage locks, regular locks...), well above, in the Airhead section of the Snowbum site, which have EXTENSIVE information.

K32.  FUEL CAP on K bikes (and other bikes too). This is a video.   It covers R/R cap internals.  No information on keying locks.  NOTE:   The "kit" in the video, 16-11-9-062-461R  was sourced from Bob's BMW.   The "R" means Bob's is selling a repair kit.  Be sure to get gasket 16-11-1-453-690.   Also see 1B and 75A.

K33.  Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

K34.  This is a link to a sketch of the clutch disc alignment tool.  It was posted 26 January, 2007, in Kbmw Yahoo Groups, and I have cleaned it up and posted it here for you.

Many of my Airhead articles are informative for K bike and Oilhead owners; and some, such as the brakes article, are informative for all motorcycles.  Other examples are my articles 78 and 78A.  Many other examples of useful articles are in the Airheads sections.  Scattered in this long list of Technical Articles you are reading are stated references to Airheads articles that also apply to Classic K bikes, and/or Oilheads ....but I have probably missed a few.  I suggest you look at the entire list of articles, and see what might apply to your Classic K bike or Oilhead, etc.  For information on electrics in general, see article 14A.  For batteries see the new battery article, number 35.  Both of these are in the Airheads section, quite far above.

I have a page that has some motorcycle and personal items for sale (or TRADE! ...some items even FREE!):   SALE

Sidecar specific section:
When I ride my motorcycle, it makes me happy.  When I drive my sidecar rig, it makes everyone who sees me happy ........and many want to chat with me.   I suggest you allow extra time for your errands, drives, tours, etc.

This section begins with our present sidecar rig.  The technical articles follow.    This is our present sidecar rig, but mostly as it looked when I first purchased it from Al Olme.

I had it shipped to me from Minnesota by HaulBikes (also known as Daily Direct); whose service is highly recommended by me & many others, including dealerships.  I removed the Police-type saddle & Authorities radio trunk prior to Penny & my 2008 trip across the USA, installing the stock seat & large standard trunk. The Police/Authorities items have been sold.  I  have City-cases, as well as Tour-bags & use whichever is appropriate, even in combination sometimes.  Specifications below are in brief, as I have done a LOT of modifications.

Tug wheels:  4.5 x 14" EZS.
Tug tire, REAR:  175/70-R14 rear (Likely will return to P165/70R14 at next tire change).
Tug Tire, FRONT:   165/70-R14 front (to POSSIBLY be 175 in future, or, remain same).
***I am experimenting with tire sizes on the tug***

Sidecar wheel:  #300, 15" EML with 135R15 tire (to POSSIBLY 135/80-R15 in the future).

Front fork:  EZS Leading Link, with special fender to accommodate the tire size.
Front shocks: Koni 7610-1282 shocks (modified by me).
Brembo twin spot calipers on front wheel of tug, dual front floating discs and floating calipers, with torque arms.
ABS system removed.
Single disc rear brake uses Brembo two-piston 38 mm P108 caliper.
Rear master cylinder 16 mm Magura.
Brembo F05 sidecar disc brake plumbed to the tug's rear braking system.
Front wheel offset to right by 1-3/8".  Sidecar wheel lead 13-1/4". Toe-in 3/8".
The need for a steering dampener, hydraulic, my modifications, is quite minimal.
R1100S modified hand-guards.
Hotel-quality rugs in chair and chair trunk.
Multiple types of electrical outlets in chair; modified RAM mount for GPS, etc.
Way over-designed/over-built TOP, designed/made HERE ...sheesh what a job!
See #9 below.

Some specifications, including empty and loaded weights & dimensions; plus a lot of factory brochures, and a LARGE amount of SERVICE information for the EML sidecar, will be found on this website, HERE:

The SKUNK flag stands for Sidecars Up Nort Klub.   Up Nort stands for anyplace Up North of someplace or anyplace.

Dasse water-cooled trike; Lucie-Dasse,1895; first female driver in Belgium.

Snowbum is active (and a moderator) on these sidecar LISTS:  (any and all sidecars)  (EML sidecars)

SC1A.  The good, the bad, literature and information, an overview of sidecars and sidecaring basics     rev: 11/13/2016

SC1B.  List of Sidecar groups on the Internet      rev: 11/14/2016  

SC1C.  Hyperlink for the Evergreen Council group training schedule for Basic & Advanced training:

SC1D.  Hyperlink to a website that has a lot of photos, videos, links, etc., about sidecar traveling, much is out of the USA, some videos, etc., are in English, but the whole site is fun to look through.  You could use Google translator.

SC1E.  German website, lots of interesting things....if you do not read German, put the URL into Google Translations.

NOTE!   If you use the Google CHROME browser, it has settings that can give you automatic translating for any website you visit.

SC1F.  Source for Vintage sidecar items, numerous manufacturer's items here:

SC1G.  Source for fuel tanks, valves, caps, gauge, etc:

SC2A.  Sidecar Tech.  Where to get information.  Manuals, mechanicals, photos, licensing, modifications, subframes, mounts, brakes, alignment details & photos.  R100RT-Ural rig mounts, etc.       rev. 11/18/2016

SC2B.   Has a LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.  Be sure to download, or at least read, the three articles/books on that site furnished to the USCA by the late Dr. Hal Kendall:  How to drive a sidecar rig, and alignment, setup, LOTS OF THINGS.   At the top area, click on Links and Books, .....then click on Books and Manuals.  VERY HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!

SC3A.  MAJOR sidecar resources list.    rev:   12/09/2016   The article additionally has resources for handicapped persons; speedometer re-calibrator box, tires, USCA, ...a long list of resources is included.  ALSO see SC2B, SC3A, SC3B.

SC3B.   A lot of sidecar information.  Few seem to know of this website. It was originally set up for disabled drivers, and still has a huge amount of information for them, but has expanded.

SC4.  There is a BRAKES section on this website.  It has additional information on the installation of brakes of various types for sidecars. This is in addition to information in various SCx articles here.   BRAKES

SC5.  Sidecar and sidecarist humor  ...and a wee bit of seriousness     rev: 11/14/2016

SC6.  Flying the chair; steering reversion; countersteering       rev:  11/13/2016

SC7.  Miscl.  Sidecar Tech, including FUEL TANKS, brakes, TIRES, etc.      rev: 09/04/2016

SC8.  EML sidecars.  MAJOR ARTICLE.  Old sales brochure, plus LOTS of technical information on ever part of the EML-GT2 and some other EML sidecars.  Includes suspension & brakes overhaul; lamps, tires, etc.  SOME EZS information too.  Information on parts availability.    Allow time to load if on slow connection!   rev. 01/07/2017

SC9.  EML sidecar tops; photos; description of various types of tops; & my own custom top      rev. 06/11/2016
Also see SC8, just above

SC10.  LEANER rigs. FLEXIT leaner sidecar; history, photos, etc.  Other leaners; ....hyperlinks, etc.  rev.  12/09/2016 

SC11.  EZS_steering_damper; including overhaul.  Rev. 06/16/2016

SC12.  My first "street" sidecar, a R100RT-Ural sidecar rig, was sold April 2006.  Information & photos on that rig, including the subframes & a lot of other technical items.     rev. 10/20/2016

SC13.  Adding running lamps.  See either article 13 or article O15.

SC14.  HUGE HINTS & TECHNICAL ITEMS ARTICLE. Side-stand switch; BULB MONITORING UNIT, in depth; Clutch, Clutch lever; F.I. & hoses; alcohol-laced fuel, gas-o-hol, gasolines, driveshaft repairs, ETC.    rev. 08/17/2016.

SC15.  Lousy fuel mileage:   see article 81

SC16.  My present sidecar rig, see at the beginning of this sidecar section.  Also see:
Our present Sidecar rig: K1100LT-EML GT2

SC17.  My K1100LT has handguards.

NOTE:  see article 82, well above; about insurance!

The technical information on this site is
If you want to donate to help defray costs, click here:
That page also has history and information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone!


Motorcycle & personal items WANTED/SELL or TRADE/BARTER:   SALE
There is also some FREEEEE stuff there!

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Last check/edit: Wednesday, March 29, 2017