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Clicking on them is THE major support for this website!
Clicking on something inside an advertisement helps EVEN MORE!!!
I would appreciate your remembering to click on various
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...and thanks also, for the occasional donation!

Snowbum's Encyclopedic BMW
Motorcycle Repair & Information Website

"The Expatiating Scribe of the Sierra's"

This is the Technical Articles List page.

© "Copyright, 2015, R. Fleischer"

Print font too small?  Use your Browser's ZOOM feature!

This is NOT the HomePage. The HomePage accesses many things, including some technical articles, NOT accessible from this Technical Articles List page.  Going from the HomePage to the Technical Article List page, using the clickable link at the bottom of the HomePage will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of any article.   I suggest you "bookmark" (Favorites) the HomePage, NOT the page you are looking at right now. The HomePage is:



Animation by Mo Massen; furnished to me by Alessandro Zorat


Covers the 1984 R100RT that was replaced
by the 1995 R100RT; and, some details, near
the bottom, of the above 1995.


Snowbum, by early 2015, had ~650,000 miles on BMW motorcycles

1952, January...There's a road here someplace!


Technical information on this website is 

But, if you want to help with website costs, click here:   DONATING
That page has history and information about this website.


Internet mailing LISTS, Groups, Airheads Club & website, Facebook:

New to Internet Mailing Lists?  Especially if new to BMW motorcycle riding, riders & E-mail; ... please click & read the short article:  After which you may want to read this:

"Airhead" (??):
"Airhead" is slang for a BMW boxer (two-cylinders, opposed) air-cooled motorcycle manufactured between December 1969 (the /5 series) and the end of its production in 1995-1996. "Airhead" does NOT include the boxer twins known as Oilheads, Hexheads, Camheads, Waterheads, etc.

Please post technical inquiries to the Airheads LIST regarding Airheads.  Please post technical inquiries to the Kbmw LIST regarding Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100...).

By posting to the appropriate LIST, your questions (& answers which may come from several sources on that LIST, and not just me), will help more than just you.  This helps me, as I can not keep up with individual replies ......I need time to eat, sleep, and have a life!

The clickable links show how to join the Airheads CLUB, and how to become a member of the FREE internet LIST., which is the Club's website, contains many things, including technical articles, some of which I wrote.  Try not to confuse that website with the Airheads internet mailing LIST (if you join the LIST, that is an E-mail LIST).   Many if not most Airhead owners are members of the Club, and also members of the E-mailing LIST.   When you are a paid member of the CLUB, you receive the monthly printed-on-paper publication, AIRMAIL.  You can join the CLUB on that site; or, obtain a snail-mail form, copied from the last page of the monthly Airmail, from a Club Member.   The site has been overhauled and totally updated, and now includes FORUMS.  Snowbum does not like Forums, and usually does not participate.

All the E-mailing LISTs I have noted in this longish section are primarily for immediate, personalized, technical information. You can subscribe to the AIRHEADS internet mailing LIST by going to the following URL, scan down a bit, and following directions:    Snowbum is a Moderator/Administrator on that LIST.

Hint #1:  I suggest you do NOT use the Airheads List Digest mode,
it is much less helpful than you might think.  Digest mode WILL require YOU to do much more editing in replying to a LIST message. You may not see how to reply to a single sender.  Failure to do editing is VERY annoying for you and recipients using hand-held devices, and excessive message length costs money for those that pay by the byte. Without proper BASIC editing technique you will/could post entire digests with your replies...a big NO! NO!   Basic editing instruction is available here:

If you have not yet read this, be sure to:

Hint #2:  Put  into your computer E-mail address book, perhaps using a nickname such as "Airheads"; so you don't have to type the full address when YOU want to post a message.  Most E-mail programs can do this.  If need-be, set your program to accept LIST messages. You will post and receive mail to/from:

I also suggest you put a signature line, with your E-address at least, at the bottom of each message.

Hint #3:  I suggest you set your outgoing messages, for the particular LIST or FORUM, for PLAIN TEXT. You cannot post HTML (images, colors, etc.) to the Airheads LIST; .... & your message size is limited to 100Kb.   To post images, use any of the common FREE (no sign-up needed) image posting sites for your image(s), and put a LINK to those in your message to

To see all the Micapeak mailing lists and to sign onto any of them: does NOT spam you; does NOT sell or otherwise pass out your E-mail address; does NOT put advertising into your or other folks E-mail messages.

Airheads LIST Archives:

Facebook Groups (membership is from many countries in all of these).  All have many thousands of members:   MANY members from other areas of the world.

Snowbum is an active Member of all three above groups. 
 Australia and New Zealand mostly.

I, Snowbum, have problems with Facebook, besides security and privacy concerns.  It is difficult to find topic threads for the past.  Replies help only a few people at a time.   Facebook was designed for Social interactions AND CAPTURING YOUR PRIVATE DETAILS.  Facebook groups DO have a way to search for past discussions on some topic, or even a poster's name.  Near the top of your group's page, look for the small box with a magnifying glass symbol.  Type the word or words, briefly, into the box, and press ENTER, or whatever your method will be.

I suggest YOU USE the Airheads LIST for technical questions/information; that is where Snowbum hangs out the most, and is a moderator/administrator.

THE major sidecarist's LIST is
Snowbum is active on that LIST, and is a Moderator. It is sometimes very quiet.   The SCT in that address stands for SideCarTalk, being just how the LIST was originally named.  The LIST is primarily technically oriented.

You may be interested in this page:  A number of sidecarists hang out here, and this is the page for Claude Stanley's Freedom Sidecars, a custom sidecar shop, which, for years, has been doing high quality work.

Technical LIST for EML sidecars:  Snowbum is active on the LIST, and is a Moderator. This list is primarily technically oriented. Typically quiet. The SCL in that address stands for SideCarLounge, being just how the LIST was named.

Western USA branch of the United Sidecar Association:
It is primarily for chit-chat, places, people, events, etc.  It tends to be VERY quiet.

Important website:
A LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.   Be sure to download, or at least read, the three article/books on that site furnished to the USCA by the late Dr. Hal Kendall: how to set up and drive a sidecar rig, ETC. (LOTS of ETC!!)  Click at the top at Links and Books, then click on Books & Manuals. 

If you own a Classic K-bike (K1, K75, K100, K1100...), join the K-bmw mailing LIST.  Snowbum is somewhat active there, which is primarily technically oriented:

Internet-based FORUM for the K1200-K1300 series:   Snowbum does not participate.

There is a K11 owners group list.  The site is quite active in its FORUMS section.
Snowbum very seldom participates.

Sometimes known as "The Big LIST", the following website covers all BMW motorcycles, with lots of technical things: Be cautious about what technical advice/information/articles you see and use ...some are not good. Snowbum monitors & sometimes participates on the IBMWR tech list, which you can sign up for, on the .org site.  There is a marketplace on that site.

Oilheads, Hexheads, Camheads, K bikes: 
Snowbum does NOT monitor nor participate here.

Some other important LISTS and FORUMS are shown in this Technical Articles List page in the K bike or Oilhead areas.

BMW Motorcycle Owners of America (BMWMOA) has forums on just about every BMW product since BMW began, right up to the present moment.  You must be a member to access and participate.  Snowbum participates on the BMWMOA Airheads forum now and then ....but, take that to mean RARELY.

Legal stuff:

The information on this website is provided at no cost and without any warranty whatsoever.  It is my personal information & opinion, which you may use at your own discretion, for personal use only. Your usage does NOT make me liable for any problems.    Improperly maintained motorcycles can lead to serious injury or death or unavoidable accidents.  I am not responsible for any errors contained herein, and I make no claims whatsoever as to the safety, validity, or veracity of the information contained in these documents.  Any use of the information contained in/on this website, that leads to any work you choose to do or not to do on your or anyone else's motorcycle is done at your own risk.  If you do not know what you're doing, take your motorcycle to a reputable shop with skilled professional mechanics.  The instructions & information contained on these various pages merely document how the author may ....or may not his own maintenance.

Copyright information; the following symbol signifies a copyright:  ©

MOST of the articles on this website are copyrighted.   ALL ARTICLES WRITTEN BY ME AND LISTED ON THIS PAGE, OR LISTED/SHOWN ON OTHER PAGES, OR OTHERWISE ON THIS WEBSITE, ARE COPYRIGHTED, UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFICALLY NOTED.  My copyright exists whether or not you see the  © copyright symbol or statement. 

Website pages MAY show a copyright date at the top, and/or near the bottom.  These dates are NOT necessarily the date that the original article was copyrighted by me.  You are granted use of my website pages for yourself, as printed or electronic copies.   You are also granted approval for incorporation by reference (or hyperlink to my articles) for many other uses.  You must not abridge, modify, shorten, or otherwise edit my articles, unless it is made clear that you are doing so, & YOU THEN MUST prominently note any change in INTENT, or INFORMATION.  You are NOT granted permission to DUPLICATE my articles, in part, or entirety, without prior permission from me, except as above noted.  Commercial duplication; or, editing/publishing/sales in any manner the content or part-content of my articles; and/or failure to quote me as the source/author, use of plagiarism, etc.; including other commercial activity, beyond what is specifically herein allowed without specific permission, will result in public announcement of same; and, if you do not cease & desist, will LIKELY result in prosecution under the laws of the United States; and other nations.  These are NOT idle threats, I HAVE legally gone after those who plagiarize & misuse my written articles; including for monetary damages & lawyers fees.  I'm VERY protective of my articles ...but I will usually grant you usage beyond just for yourself, ask!

One of the things that REALLY ticks me off is misquoting me. 

What makes me MUCH MORE feeling like I want to (and WILL) be to find someone has modified my articles, or parts of them, & then claims them as their work. Plagiarism is what this is called.  That person is STEALING FROM ME.   Note what I said previously, above.  I WILL pursue LEGALLY for MONETARY & other damages, and I will do it to the absolute maximum the Court allows.  This is NOT an idle threat!

On purpose I do not make money off my articles (except if someone clicks on Google Ad-Sense advertisements), and I don't want you to make money off my articles.  I do not want you copying my material to disc or other media, and then selling them, even at cost for just the media materials.  Keep in mind that I update my website constantly.  Only the latest on-line version is going to be accurate and up-to-date.  Providing outdated information by you, or anyone else, is BAD. 

BEWARE of your computer 'caching' copies. Using a refreshed mode may be your best solution (F5 on Windows) to that problem ....more on this a bit further down.

You do NOT need my permission, if you follow the preceding, to use my TECHNICAL material in many ways, but if you have any questions, you may e-mail me:

I try to allow YOU the widest possible & reasonable use of my articles/content.  The rest of this Copyright section explains things in a simpler fashion:

CREATIVE COMMONS are two words that describe a way for a Copyright Holder (that's ME!) to grant YOU permission for MY WORK to be copied, distributed, or adapted ... IF ... certain conditions are met.  Conditions can include 'Some Rights Reserved'.    So, to keep this simple:   You may use my work if you keep my name prominently with my work, and you, at a minimum, LINK to my original work (and prominently show ANY modifications or additions or comments by you or anyone using your copies, etc., as being from other than me, and are prominently so-noted).  Such must not be misleading to those who might read or see my material.  You may use my material ONLY for non-commercial purposes, unless you have MY permission for each instance.  Creative Commons does NOT grant you unlimited rights; YOU MAY NEED APPROVAL FROM ME.
....................     ...................     .....................    ...................     ......................    ........................

If you have a website, & your page where you have placed something from MY website, and so acknowledged (or a hyperlink to my website, which is always appreciated!) has advertisements that provide you income if folks reading your website click on those ads, I DO NOT consider your webpage to be commercial use of my material, so I do NOT restrict your use of my material on such a page, so long as your usage is within what I have stated in my Copyright Information section.

I frequently update articles on this website, sometimes daily. This is important if you use a search engine that saves pages & doesn't update pages until they are next scanned; and who knows when that is (no matter the coding I use to have to try to get their robots to do it more often and to restrict caching).

An OLD scan MIGHT or MIGHT NOT be 'cached, or even listed as 'cached'.    It is best to go directly to this website's HomePage and from there go to the Technical Articles List page.  
The HomePage contains access to MANY things NOT on, nor even accessible, from this Technical Articles List page you are now looking at.  Going from the HomePage to this Technical Articles List page (via the link near the bottom of the HomePage) will, 100% of the time, give you the LATEST version of any article by then finding and clicking on it.    Please pay attention to what I am saying in this paragraph.  I suggest you Bookmark ('Favorites') the HomePage , and NOT the page you are looking at right now.  Click HERE:
and bookmark (favorites) THAT URL.

YOUR OWN BROWSER may cache an OLDER page from this website!  If there is ever a question about having the latest version of one of my pages/articles, I suggest you 'refresh' the browser when it is on that page of interest to you.   This is done in various ways depending on your computer.  If you are using Windows, simply tap the F5 key once.   If you are doing something especially or likely critical to your motorcycle, please consider this strongly.

Revision/editing dates are 'usually' shown at the bottom of all pertinent pages/articles and are also shown in this Technical Articles List Page.   I MAY make quite minor revisions withOUT changing dates.  That is just one more reason to use the HomePage entrance, as you ALWAYS get the latest version that way.

Please report errors/omissions/comments to me, and such are welcomed:   E-mail

Our bikes are getting quite old.  The oldest Airheads (Airheads began with the 1970 models) are now officially regarded as ANTIQUES.  You can NOT rely on just any BMW dealership (SOME ARE VERY GOOD) for repair work, not even for the proper parts and parts numbers.  Dealership personnel may well NOT have the proper knowledge nor background.  I suggest you strongly consider independent repair centers, especially ones that participate on LISTS & FORUMS.   Be cautious about SOME folks, INCLUDING independents, that put videos on such as YouTube.  I have a list of Independents that I approve of.  I DO recommend certain shops & individuals, upon request.  Especially see my Articles # 78 and # 78A, below.

BE CAUTIOUS ABOUT WHERE YOU GET WORK DONE, WHERE YOU PURCHASE PARTS, EVEN IF FROM BMW DEALERSHIPS!  CHECK MORE THAN ONE SOURCE FOR INFORMATION, PARTS, AND WORK.  BMW sometimes has incorrect part numbers, and sometimes ships wrong parts or poorly made parts.  Be careful when ordering from companies, foreign or domestic, that may not be selling genuine or TRULY equivalent BMW parts.  BMW has published SERVICE INFORMATION ERRORS!   These published errors get passed along when re-published, by such as Clymers or Haynes!  In some instances I DO have "corrections to Clymers or Haynes, etc"  type of information on this site.

Can't find what you want in this website??
Click in the box below.   I have similar boxes scattered in the articles LIST you are reading, for your convenience. The Search page has information on HOW to search, plus the actual search function.   The search engine for this website is VERY good, but if it does not work for you, you probably have settings in your computer software that are restricting the search engine.

Airhead, K, and household things FOR FREE OR SALE OR TRADE (AND...things I want):   Click! 
YES....There is also some FREEEEE stuff!

"There is always a greater idiot."

Make something idiot proof and you will eventually see a demonstration of this saying.

A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools.

"The measure of a man's character is what he would do if he knew he never would be found out." - Baron Thomas Babington Macauley

"An expert is someone who has made all the mistakes which can be made, in a very narrow field." --Niels Bohr

"...You cannot prove a vague theory wrong.  Also, if the process of computing the consequences is indefinite, then with a little skill any experimental results can be made to look like the expected consequences." Richard Feynman, 1964

There are three kinds of men:  The ones that learn by reading. The few who learn by observation.  The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence.  - Will Rogers

"We have all heard that a million monkeys banging on a million typewriters will eventually reproduce the entire works of William Shakespeare. Now, thanks to the Internet, we know this is not true."   -Robert Silensky

"There is no practical reason to create machine intelligences indistinguishable from human ones. People are in plentiful supply.  Should a shortage arise, there are proven and popular methods for making more."

Under democracy one party always devotes its chief energies to trying to prove that the other party is unfit to rule---
---and both commonly succeed, and are right...-H.L. Mencken

E-mailing snowbum:  CLICK!

What's with this lamp?  Interested in SuperTech?  Click HERE for details!

All the technical information on this site is: ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **  If you want to help maintain this website:   DONATING

Don't trust a mechanic without an attitude.  Folks who know how to do things have opinions, & opinions aren't changed easily.

If the print font is too small, I suggest you use your Browser's ZOOM feature. 

Reading beyond this point or using content in my articles constitutes acceptance of my terms & conditions.

Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum gets OFF & RUNNING!


BMW numbers parts & service by GROUPS & sub-groups.  Showing all of them:

There are many methods of supporting your motorcycle when working on it.  I used a lift at my BMW business, but I don't for my own personal garage-shop, as there is limited room.  I use the side-stand or center-stand for most work.  I also have an anchoring method that enables me to easily remove & work on almost any part of the motorcycle aft of the front wheel.  This is a link to my method:

R45 & R65 Owner's Manual

R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S, Owner's Manual

Owner's manuals for R1200GS; K1200; K1300 series; F650GS;F800 series; S1000 series, etc.:
Allow to load, then click on left side for Riders Manuals.
Also has accessories, parts, etc., for these later models.

Deer Whistles

For newer BMW POLICE bikes:  Parts information;
Technical information, Service Bulletins.

Proficient at editing E-mails?    Special symbols?  Using Foreign computers?

An Essay on Loud Pipes, etc.

A FEW German words to know

Model Differences over the years

Join the Airheads Beemer Club!

Long Distance Touring

Nerdy Stuff!

Buying or Selling a motorcycle

My 1984 R100RT bike, parts & many special tools, were sold.   The present owner & I shared this bike in the past.

Photo Galleries
#1       #2

#3       #4
#5       #6

Temporary'll never know what is HERE!

Motorcycling to Alaska 

Sidestand complaints/problems. Picking up a downed motorcycle. 

Photographs, story,
our trip around the USA


Who the HELL is Snowbum?

Prostate Cancer;  REAL FACTS! 
Kept up-to-date!

and Sayings

Our Sidecar rig:

Hyperlink,  humorous 'A Winter Tale': CLICK!

Fleischer's Service??

Whitebeard, a short true story about one
of my bikes, a 1957 R60, originally published
by me in 1987 in BMW MOA Owners News.

Snowbum lives at  Lake Tahoe,  California


Military Folks

Also FREE items here.


Maintenance schedules for all BMW motorcycles (even the C1 scooters)available on the Internet:

My Airhead maintenance schedule. CLICK!

Purchasing an old Airhead? 

Getting started on doing your own motorcycle maintenance?


Learn/improve your off-road riding?
Even if you never ride off road, some great hints here.  Ever get onto a gravel road, soft stuff, etc?  I deleted my off-road riding article after reading this one.  Very long, very detailed.  Very good.


Internet Communities.
BMW Motorcycle People.
 Posting/Editing to Mailing Lists, etc.



All the technical information on this site is

If you want to donate to help defray costs, click: DONATING. That page has information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone, and MUCH MORE.

If the print font is too small, I suggest you use your Browser's ZOOM feature.

Purchasing an Airhead?  Getting started on doing YOUR motorcycle maintenance? COMBINED ARTICLE!     click!

FUEL System in your Airhead motorcycle

(An article on fuel mileage, in depth, is #81)

1A. Fuel filters, petcocks, fuel flow, re-fueling, choke lever on clamshell models. rev. 06/27/2016

1B. Fuel caps:  Removing a bad cap; R/R locks; venting problems, ETC. Airheads AND Classic K bikes.   rev. 06/26/2016

2. Luftmeister Auxiliary Fuel Tanks  rev. 08/29/2016

3A.  Bing CV Carburetors, PART 1; GENERAL NOTES, HINTS, leaking tops &  dome inserts, tricky enrichener discs/shafts assemblies, aligning butterflies.   rev. 05/08/2016
Be sure to read article 6, below, yes, even if you do not have a /5.  There is no overhaul nor adjustments article on this website for the Bing model 53 'slide' carburetors, as used on the R50/5, R60/5, R60/6, and R60/7.   They are straightforward.  They use the SAME floats as the CV carburetors.   For acceleration pump parts check with both BMW and with Bing Agency.   One of the Airlist Members made some 'washers' that fit the acceleration pump, making them of nylon material.  3.556 mm x 0.33 mm. I have not confirmed the fit, etc.

3B. Bing Carburetor PART 2; MORE GENERAL NOTES, high altitude JETTINGchanges, tuning, hard-starting, ETC.     rev. 05/09/2016

4.  Bing carburetor Floats.  Rev. 05/09/2016

5. Bing dual-independent float kit                  rev.  05/09/2016  

6. Early Bing CV Carburetors used on R75/5, idle problems, ETC!      rev. 06/01/2016
This article has some information that applies to ALL Bing CV carburetors, so I suggest you READ IT!

7A. Synchronizing Carburetors; the whole story, in depth.  12/03/2016 

7B.  ALL CABLES! Throttle; clutch; speedometer; tachometer.   Speedometer cable rubber boot at transmission.
Control assembly perch's/wedges.  Driveshaft accordion.  rev. 05/25/2016
For control assembly perches/wedges, see item 76.

8. Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum GETS OFF & RUNNING!    rev. 04/03/2016

9A. R80 fuel mileage problems;  R80 airbox modifications.     rev.   10/15/2016

9B.  Lousy Fuel mileage; horsepower to attain high speeds; discussion of  HP, Torque, RAM-AIR, Cd, & LOTS MORE!   Why do motorcycles get such lousy mileage compared to many cars, which are vastly bigger and heavier? How much horsepower and/or torque increase does it take to improve performance?  What about RAM AIR?  Problems that can reduce fuel mileage.  What is the best cruising RPM?  Premium fuels versus mileage and combustion temperatures.    rev. 08/02/2016 

9C.  Gasoline's: This is a link to an article (not by Snowbum).  Truly curious? Technically minded? This long article describes octane, gasoline, leaded fuel, unleaded fuel, additives.  There are interesting things here and there in this article, from which you could also get to other parts/versions by re-arranging the URL:

9D. Fuel System:  Tank cleaning;  premium vs regular; additives; TEL; alcohol; fitting other tanks & seats. Throttle and choke cables.  Fuel hose. Tank lining cleaning & sealing.  rev:  11/19/2016

An article that describes Lead Substitutes, in depth, is here: VALVES

10. Tuning Intake and Exhaust systems.  rev. 09/02/2016

11. Removing/plugging the Pulse Air & Evaporative emissions & fuel shutoff systems. Fuel tank flapper valve.  SHED fuel caps.    rev.  10/11/2016

12. Bing carburetors that urinate....piss/weep/leak....onto your boot, onto the ground, floor, garage, grass, wherever.   rev.  08/02/2016

12A & 12B:  EMPTY on purpose

12C. The K & N air filter, the UNI air filter, stock air filters, .....etc.    rev. 08/11/2016

13. The Dell'Orto Carburetor        rev.  05/27/2016
Huge amount of information on how ALL types of carburetors operate, especially needle/slide types, but also vacuum  types and in particular the Dell'Orto carburetors.   SPECIFIC information on Dell'Orto settings for R90S Airheads.  Where to obtain parts.  A link to an article on converting an Airhead to use the Dell'Orto (only the R90S CAME with them).  Links to other carburetor articles of considerable value.  Links to the factory Dell'Orto manuals (ON this website!) are also here.   There are MANY sketches/photos in this article.  Allow TIME to load up if you are on a slow connection.

All the technical information on this site is      DONATING

Electrical System: Out This Schematic.pdf

AIRHEADS electrical schematic diagrams:

R80G/S, R45, R65 & R80ST, are all similar.

R65, ST, GS & G/S instrument pods are similar. 
RS and RT are identical to each other for any particular year. 

R50/5, R60/5 & R75/5 use same diagrams, but there are two, the later one has fuses. 

R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S will all be very similar. 

/6 & later with early style pods (pods NOT like the R65, ST, G/S, GS), will have similar pods, differences are few & are noted in this website.

/7 is mostly similar to the last of the /6 series. 

BMW's schematics for early eighties bikes MAY have errors.   As an example, BMW's diagrams for 1981 & later show IGNITION POINTS not ignition module for a particular model; all such models actually had electronic ignition.

14. How to buy & use test lamps and multimeters, basics++.  rev.  09/06/2016

14A. De-mystifying & Troubleshooting BMW Airhead Boxer Motorcycle Electric systems; includes battery and charging information; test lamp use, etc.       rev. 06/19/2016

Lots of good basic 101+ electricity information here; plus troubleshooting.  Also see article 15.

14B. Critique of the ChiTech Electrics School Manual; additional tech information.      rev.  05/22/2016

14C. Just about everything you need to know about how relays actually work.  Includes Bosch/DIN numbered pins information.
NOTE:  When I tried that link, it asked for sign-in, but after a few seconds, that disappeared and the article did appear.

15. Electrical hints, problems; fixes, descriptions of functions, ETC.     rev.  09/01/2016

15-A. Alternators:  WHY 3 phases?  The STOCK Bosch (including TESTED OUTPUT), substitutions, ETC.  More engineering information.   rev. 05/06/2016   Article 15-B has additional discussion about how the alternators and other parts operate together.

15-B. The Alternator/Charging System, How it Works.....AND....Troubleshooting     04/25/2016

15-C. Aftermarket Alternators:  installation, capability, performance.  Bosch, Omega, Emerald Island.    rev. 08-07-2016
Refer to 15-A-B-D-E

15-D. Really BIG alternators on Airheads    rev. 10/15/2016 

15-E. Why do alternator rotors fail?  How to replace a bad rotor.    rev. 10/21/2016
WARNING!!! ...rotor removal tools problems!
What about the reliability of the EnDuralast?  Omega?

16-A. How the starter motor system works (basics); Starter & Starting Problems; Valeo to Bosch; Bosch to Valeo; FITMENT problems--broken nose cones, etc.   Installing a Denso. Starter relays.  Solenoids.  OVERHAUL.     Rev. 06/28/2016

16-B. STARTING:  Starter doesn't engage or function?  Starts, or barely, won't stay running properly?   Information on the various starter models & different circuits over the years.  Battery load testing and wiring check using the starter motor.  rev. 11/27/2016
  Also see #35.

17. Alternator rotors, stators, brushes, cautions.  DIY!   rev. 05/05/2016

18. Diode Boards & Grounding Wires in depth.  Plus information on testing power diodes     rev. 05/28/2016

19. Alternator 'GEN' lamp circuit & resistor (AND, possibly LED) modifications.   rev. 07/02/2016

20. Testing Voltage Regulators.   High output and/or adjustable regulators.    rev. 04-02-2016

21. Servicing a Bosch Mechanical Voltage Regulators, INCLUDING the /2.   rev. 05/10/2016

22. Making it adjustable;  Bosch & Wehrle ELECTRONIC METAL CAN voltage regulators.   HOW-TO-ARTICLE.   rev.  05/22/2016

23A. Increasing the voltage output of the Wehrle PLASTIC voltage regulator (for tinkerers and nerds)      rev.  04/27/2016

23B. Schematic diagram of one version of the electronic voltage regulator    rev.  04/27/2016

24A. Lamps; all types.  Adding relays, lamp substitutions, larger headlights,
        MODULATORS, sockets, updating /5 headlight, heavier wire,
        LED's, HID, ETC.     rev. 11/26/2016
             See also 24-C and 34.

24B. How the headlight switches & relays work.  Understanding the finer details of
         information in article 24A.   Airheads, Oilheads, K, etc.    rev. 07/16/2016

24C. Headlight modulators. Federal Law. California Law. Technical details. 
         Links to sites with the laws and regulations, + ALL types of motorcycle
lighting; headlight brightness, links.  LIGHTS EFFECTS ON HUMANS.  rev. 11/26/2016

24D. Motorcycle safety: How to make ourselves more recognizable/conspicuous/visible;
          pros and cons too!

          This article is a work in process            rev. 11/26/2016

25. Replacing a 5 speed neutral switch (& selecting the correct switch)
       rev. 09/08/2016

26. Metric & American Wires, Colors, Bosch wiring Codes, wire sources;
       reading schematics, etc.
        rev. 04/30/2016

      on BMW Motorcycles.  Recommendations for Hella-DIN adaptors with
      USB output for GPS, cameras, and other devices.            rev.  07/31/2016

28. Ignition Theory; Spark Ignition Systems.   rev. 11/30/2016

29. Ignition timing; automatic advance units for single and dual-plug engines;
       single spark plug Airheads; points; condensers; amplifiers; COILS, etc!
       rev. 11/26/2016

30. IGNITION:  Points; Timing lights;  Ignition Modules; Ignition Canister
      (rebuilding yourself or sending them out); Coils;
Spark Plug Suppressor Caps;

      Dyna & Boyer, etc. Ignitions;  rubber sealing strip; sources for modules & Hall
      sensors & springs; testing & troubleshooting (including HIGH IDLE RPM); Points
      Boosters/Amplifiers.  For timing by means of piston movement...see 72.     rev. 11/30/2016 

     Some of the Hall sensor information applies to the K and Oilhead bikes.   I highly
      recommend you read both #29 & #30, above; as an understanding of both articles
      may well be needed if you are contemplating changes or repairs.

     Here is a link to an article on the diagnosis and repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition
      sending unit.  This article has some explanations & details that may help you understand
      the Airhead electronic ignition.

31. Dual Plugging: Ignition; milling heads, shaving cylinders, etc.  rev. 11/30/2016

32. SPARK PLUGS; Airheads, Pre-Airheads, Classic K bikes.  Head threads; torques;
       ANTISEIZE (OR NOT); spark plug caps & wire assemblies; resistor & non-resistor
       spark plugs; Interchangeability charts & part numbers.      rev. 11/24/2016

33. Ampmeters (ammeters) vs. Voltmeters. GEN lamps? (discussion, problems, etc).   rev. 05/08/2016

34. Adding Running Lamp Function to Turn Signals  rev. 11/13/2016

35. New or rejuvenating a battery?  Filling a new flooded battery; initializing properly; other battery
       types (including lithium); which battery to purchase; sources; usage; chargers (SMART or not);
       peculiarities; BMW motorcycle batteries, chargers, initialization, flooded, new battery,
       de-sulfating charging voltages; How to Load Test a Battery; ETC.             rev: 09/16/2016.

See 16B for how to load test a battery using the starter motor ....although most IS covered here in #35.

36. Accessing the headlight bucket on RS/RT, cleaning headlamp/glass, aiming a headlight,
       accessing the headlight wiring.   rev. 07/15/2016

37. Slash 5 (/5) starter relay 'cricket' noise & starting problems.  Slash 5 (/5) bikes with stock
       starter relays SHOULD RECEIVE THIS MODIFICATION        rev. 11/19/2016

37A. Tachometers:   connections, wire colors, retrofitting to earlier models;
         checking calibration (mechanical OR electronic type).    REPAIRS.
         rev. 12/03/2016

37B. Airheads and K bikes:  Broken front and/or rear brake light switches.   
          Stiff K bike throttles for 1985.   rev. 05/17/2016

38A. CAN-Bus, OBD-II, ....what is this??.   How it works.  What about the future?
         WiFi in cars?  WiFi in motorcycles?.....what is really coming, soon!
         Telematics?  CAUTIONS on desulfation mode on Smart Chargers.  rev. 05/21/2016

Regarding section 38B onwards to the end of 38x:
I have obtained schematic diagrams posted on this website from a variety of sources. 
NONE are from the otherwise excellent Chitech BMW Electric School Manual, which
is still offered for sale.   MANY schematics in that Manual are difficult to read & some
are fuzzy.  I DO recommend you purchase that manual, see my
URL page for how to
obtain a copy.  There is a critique, with some corrections, that I made for that manual:

I PROBABLY HAVE every schematic diagram for every Airhead (& most other BMW models
to 1996 or so).  My collection includes most World versions. There are literally
HUNDREDS of diagrams,  including accessories ...even such as the early Airheads when
they were available with Avon fairings.  Diagrams include those for heated grips, special
lighting, & Authorities (Police) models.   There are CONSIDERABLE similarities between
various models.
HOWEVER, there are enough schematics already on this website to
enable you to work on your bike.

If you need to contact me for a specific diagram, or perhaps something is not clear to you
about a schematic on my website, you may ask me.  I would like to know what the problem
is, if any, whether an interpretation or specific ill; AND, if you need a schematic for the main
frame diagram, or engine or some sub or accessory item that is not already covered on my
website.  I will need to know your BMW model, its year, and if a USA or Euro.
  It would be
very helpful if you knew the model code that BMW uses for your motorcycle.  If you do
not know the model code, which is helpful and saves me time, DO, then,  furnish the full
serial number or VIN number.

Sometimes questions you may have will be answered by referring to my electrical hints
article #15, or some other article in the Electricals section of my website.



Link to a German website, with many Airhead (& some R1100 oilhead & other) electrical schematic diagrams ...and MORE than just that. You will have to snoop around a bit (probably) & click on the Shaltplane or Shaltplaene. The site keeps getting re-arranged & the actual address for the diagrams to be selected by you keep varying. Might be best to just go to the homepage: & start from there. But, you can try the address below, it may work: These are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA motorcycle or for other countries. Use these schematics in conjunction with what you find on my website. There is a LOT of information besides schematics on that German website. The site contains information on a WIDE variety of subjects, not just electrical items.


Links for more electrical schematics, etc., are found in article #80, below.

Some BMW schematics will show things NOT on YOUR bike, which were special equipment or added accessories.   Special equipment items have their own article here, see #38B, just below!


38B. Miscl. Electrical schematics for Hazard flasher system, fold-out
          fog/driving lights, heated grips, VDO instruments.  Replacing a /6 left-side

handlebars switch.  Substitute voltmeters and clocks.  rev.  11/07/2016 

38C. Schematic diagrams in three formats: .gif; .pdf; and .bmp;
          for R90S, R60S, R75/6, R90/6; for 1975 & into 1976.          rev. 03/22/2016

Below is a link to someone else's diagram for the above bikes.  This version
       is in pdf format, and has the wiring and items shown in various colors.  It is
       quite differently displayed than the above 38C diagram.

38C+. Schematic diagram for 1974 model, /6 series, EURO, type 0271 

38D. Schematic diagram for the 1978 Airheads, as .pdf, includes legend.

38E. Schematic diagram for the /5 electricals, last model, fused, .pdf

38F. Schematic Diagrams for both early and late /5.  Early model had no fuses.  Set your
         browser to expand the image as needed, it WILL be clear.

Schematic Diagram for the late /5, as a .gif; model with fuses:   CLICK

38G. Schematic diagram, 1981 R100, R100CS, as .pdf 
        SIMILAR to many of this era.    See just below too.

        Schematic diagram, 1981-1984.   A different type of sketch than the above
         one. This schematic is German.  Compare this to the above one.
         Legend for the numbered and lettered "items" in this schematic: legend

         Early eighties schematic diagram, of the colored type of presentation:

38H. Schematics & wires colors diagrams & descriptions for 1981-1985 R65,
         R65LS, R45, R80ST, ETC.     (.jpg, and .pdf)       rev. 10/14/2016

 81 R65 Wiring Diagram 1-16-09 (1).pdf

38i. Schematic diagram for 1979-1980 R100RS, series 0427 as shipped to various
        countries, full base diagram.  pdf format

38J.  Main lighting diagram.   pdf format.  Covers above (38i) into the early 1980's.

38K. PDF diagrams for R100GSPD:


38L. Schematic diagram and Legend, 1989 and later R100RS/R100RT, USA,
          pdf format, TWO pages

38M. Replacing a /5 ignition switch with a round barrel type switch:

Here is a link for a KIT to basically do a barrel switch installation:


38N. Radio codes:  Key OFF.  PRESS and HOLD "M"; turn key on.  If code does
         not display, contact dealer or radio shop.   You should have written
         the code down when you purchased the bike! came with it!

38O. Heated Clothing:   At this time I CAN NOT recommend Gerbings products,
          due to problems, reported from MANY, with personnel, workmanship, etc.
         I CAN recommend Widder heated clothing products.   Aerostitch products
          are also good.  
See my references article.

38P. empty on purpose


Electrical contact cleaners and treatments are in article 73.


Mechanical?  Electrical?  BOTH? .....NEITHER?

39A. F, OT, S, and Z marks on your Flywheel (clutch carrier);
         re-marking, alignment, degreeing camshafts. RE-INSTALLING Flywheel (or Clutch Carrier),
         rev.  11/28/2016
        For Automatic Timing Units, in depth, see article 29.

39B. Mis-adjusted carburetors and/or sticky automatic timing units can cause
         high rpm, typically after full warm-up.  See article #30, which has a section
         on just this problem.

39C. How to safely transport your motorcycle (like in a truck or trailer, etc.)    rev 04/22/2016

39D. ALASKA....a LOT of information on trips to Alaska, that you NEED if going there; rev. 05/03/2016

39E. Buried traffic light detection loops; bike triggering problems with them.  rev. 04/14/2016

39F. NERDY stuff      rev. 09/07/2016

39G. /5 article on disassembly and repairs, etc:

39H. For information on timing an engine via measured piston movement, see item 72 below.

"Bookmark" (Favorites) the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at right now.  The HOMEPAGE is

Revision/Editing dates are listed at the bottom of most pages/articles. 
The homepage contains access to things NOT on, nor accessible from the Index of Technical Articles list page you are now looking at.  Going from the HomePage to an article, via the link at the bottom of the homepage, will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of the article.


Mechanical Systems, and 'other stuff':

There are many methods of supporting your motorcycle for ease in working on it. Some use motorcycle lifts. I certainly did that at my BMW business but I don't for my own personal garage-shop, as there is very limited room. I use the side-stand or center-stand for most work. I also have a front tire/wheel anchoring method that enables me to easily remove & work on almost any part of the motorcycle aft of the front wheel. Link to my method:

40. Setting Valves; how to do it correctly.  ALSO: What happens when
a valve comes apart and tries to destroy the engine.    rev. 12/12/2016
After reading this article, I recommend reading article 60 section 1; 60-6; 60-5.

41. Overheating, excessive idle time, etc.     rev. 06/15/2016        

42. The pre-1970 slinger service; including the /2 slinger service.
rev. 11/18/2016

43. Transmission input (clutch) splines, throwout bearing, clutch arm cleaning,
lubrication & inspection, adjusting swing arm.  Early swing arm bearing seal rings.
       Rev. 08/05/2016. 
CLUTCH article, Section 60, item 9, below, has extensive information
on the throw-out bearings, and "everything clutch".   See Article 7B about control cables.     
New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and airheads crankshaft and K
bikes at alternator drive:

44. Maintaining paintwork, aluminum, windscreen & helmet visor/shield. Drilling/cutting
       plastics like your windshield. Repair cracked luggage & fairings. Pesky hollow rivets.
Sandblasting?  Cleaning aluminum wheels.  Noisy fairing/dash? BENT LEVERS? 
       Washing the bike.  Black plastic and trim. Cleaning grunged-up exhaust systems.
rev.  05/04/2016
Article 73 has information on products to use to maintain plastic visors,
       shields, ETC.     Also see article 75A

45. Rear Wheel Splines; Rear Drive Output Splines; Rear Drive Oil Leaks/oil levels;
      Replacing a Rear Drive Left Seal, Inner seal, Nose seal; Oil Leaks with
      Drum Brakes; Leaking oil drain plugs; Monolever & Paralever Cardan
      Bearings; Rear Drive overhaul, Rivets, Wheel Cup; ETC.  Rev. 10/16/2016

46. Exhaust pipe finned (spider) nuts; problems removing, cleaning/lubrication, etc.
      PLUS recommendations for exhaust replacements (MORE in references article 78A)
      rev. 06/16/2016

47. Driveshaft Bolts, Washers, Torque, tools, push-starting, etc.   rev. 05/29/2016

48. Ring & pinion gears, ratios, speedometers/odometers, (instrument pod repairs-
        link), instrument numeral colors, rpm, road speeds, numeral colors.  
        rev. 10/21/2016        
Also see article 39G

49. Oil Transfers....moving someplace other than where it belongs.  Water in the oil.
      Transmission & rear drive lubricants.  Installing speedometer boot at the transmission.
       Rev:  09/27/2016

50A. Oiling system; oil consumption; thermostat; cooler; pressure bypass valve
          in filter canister area; remote & other oil filter kits, ETC.    rev. 09/26/2016

50B. MORE on the BMW Airhead Oiling System:  Sketches, descriptions; caps;
        breather (disc and reed types and installtion), thermostats   rev. 09/27/2016

50C. Oil Pans; oil pan gaskets; oil pan threads, oil capacity; dipsticks;
          oil pickups, windage.   rev. 11/09/2016

50D. Oil Coolers, including installation; oil canisters in brief       05/25/2016

51A. Oil & filter change.  'Reading filters'. The "$2000 O-ring" ($3500 if you ruin
         your crankshaft).  Thermostat covers; LOTS more! ...INCLUDING spin-on oil filter
conversions. Filter Changes. Reading oil filter elements.      Rev.  09/19/2016

51B. Oil filters, canisters, ETC.   Information on changing your filter, types
          of oils for your airhead, oil additives; gasoline additives....etc.
         Rev.  09/22/2016     Suggested reading:  51A and 51C

51C.  Oil lubrication tech; oil recommendations, ZDDP & ZDTP; synthetics, etc. 
         Airheads, K-bikes, CARS, etc.     Rev. 09/25/2016

51D. Oil viscosities, viscosity indexes, engine oils, gear oils, suspension/fork
          fluids, shock absorber fluids, SAE, SUS, Cst, some ZDDP values.   GL4.  GL5.  BMW
          factory recommendations for viscosities.  Brands and ZDDP values.   Rev. 10/10/2016   

52. Pinging (Pinking); LUGGING; piston detonation.  Causes, effects, cures/fixes.
      Rev. 10/03/2016  

53. Brakes; everything about them.  Rebuilding ATE MC.   SS lines.
      Conversions/upgrades.     rev.  07/04/2016

54. Wheels, Tires, Axles, Hubs, Bearings, Steering Head, Forks, Seals/spacers,
       tires, dampers, ETC! 
       See #44 for wheel paint recommendations, etc. You will also find wheel coating
       information in the
chemicals article.

Section 1:  19" wheel recall      rev. 10/16/2016

Section 2A:  Wheel spoke lacing and alignment of hub/rim   rev. 10/24/2016   

 Section 2B:  The confusion over wheel spoke sizes and specifications.  rev.  04/28/2016

Section 3.  WHEELS; Wheel Spacers; Seals;  HINTS, ETC.   rev. 10/06/2016
                        Also contains info on swapping various years/models of wheels.
                        (except Lester's, see Section 7 below).
I suggest that you also read Section 5, below.

Section 4:  Wheel bearing preload & servicing wheel bearings. Some other
                           wheel information also, such as on the Speedi-Sleeve
                            rev. 10/27/2016                       
                            BE SURE to read Section 3, above.
                            Also take a look-see at Section 9, below

      Section 5:  Tire tests & recommendations.   Hydroplaning; tire width; top hat spacers; nitrogen.
                           REAL tire testing!  Tested tires by brand/model.  Fender brace.  Selecting
                           tires.   Things you never knew.     
rev. 12/01/2016
                           I suggest you read Section 3 above and Section 6 just below!
                           More tire information will also be found in Section 12, below; including a section
                           on vibration/thrumming, etc.

Section 6:  Tubeless versus tubes. Rim shapes. VERY detailed article     rev. 11/07/2016
IN DEPTH discussion on going tubeless on Snowflake tube type rims, and every other
                           sort of combination of tires, tubes ....and no tubes.

      Section 7:  Lester wheels                 rev.  08/25/2016
Section 8A:  Steering dampers. Suspension. Shock absorbers & springs.
                           rev. 11/08/2016

Section 8B:  Ikon and Koni shock absorbers spring chart; a pdf file

      Section 9:  Airhead Wheel Bearing Clinic, BMWMOA National Rally,
                        July 2005; critique of BMW-ON magazine articles of 2004.
                        rev: 04/28/2016
54, Section 3 and Section 4 and Section 7, above

      Section 10A.  Front forks internals & alignment, stiction, braces, gaiters, cleaning &
                            lubricating (or replacing) steering head bearings, springs. In-depth
                            discussion of stiction & setting fork sag.  Hints regarding front fork
                            internals.  Modifications.  rev. 11-29-2016           

Section 10B.  Front Forks:  Oil filling amounts; pre-Airheads, Airheads,
K1, K75, K100, K1100   rev. 06/24/2016

Section 10C. 
Instability; weaving, wobbling, tank slappers; the REAL
                            information.  rev. 08/08/2016

      Section 11.  Hyperlink to Anton's website wheel balancing article

Section 12.  TIRE INSTALLATION & REPAIRS.  TIRE PRESSURES.  Studding.  Includes a section
on vibration/thrumming, mudflaps, etc.        rev. 10/29/2016  
see article 10C for much more on tire created problems

Section 13.  Brush guards (hand guards). BMW offers its own, and this part number is
                           for the black ones for the Airhead GS models, adaptable to many other
                           models:  71-60-2-315-870.  BMW also offers others in black and white and
                           many can be made to fit Airheads, and to K bikes.

55. Maintenance Schedule, including Pre-Winter service/Storage.     rev. 11/11/2016  

56. Cold Weather Starting   rev. 05/24/2016  

57. Noise Silencing Pads For The Cylinder Fins   rev. 10/13/2016  

58. Importing a motorcycle; EPA, DOT & Customs    rev. 07/30/2016

59A. Transmissions (and everything associated with them)     rev. 07/27/2016

        59A.  Additional information:
       New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and airheads crankshaft,
                  K bikes at the alternator drive:

59B. Emergency Shifting Tools for 5 speed transmissions     Rev. 07/27/2016 
        Transmission won't shift?



      Section 1:  Disassembly & assembly; heads, pistons, rings, cylinders, break-in;
Helicoils;  spigots (intake stubs); Timeserts; case threads for cylinder
                        studs; rocker arms; rocker blocks.      01/25/2016
You may be interested in reading articles 40; 60-3, 60-4, 60-5, and 60-6

      Section 2:  Flywheel (& also Clutch Carrier) removal/replacement WARNING;
                        MAIN SEAL & O-ring. Oil pump & its cover and seal.  Rod bolts.
Re-installation of Flywheel, seal installation photos. Crankshafts in depth.
                        Factory bulletin on new style seals.   Front crank bearing carrier.
Grabby clutch, vibrations. Hard shifting.  Idle rpm change with
clutch lever use due to excessive crankshaft end-play.  Specifications and parts
                        numbers for crankshaft thrust washers....ETC.         rev. 06/24/2016

                        New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output & Airheads
crankshaft...and K bikes at the alternator drive:


      Section 2A:  Lightened flywheel information          rev. 08/26/2016   

      Section 3:  CYLINDERS. Plates, shims, gaskets, sealants.  Measuring
                          cylinders w/o special micrometers.  Ridge removal. New rings.

                          rev. 05/26/2016

      Section 4:  Pistons (including swapping heads-cylinders-pistons), rings, pins,
                         clips, keepers, decarboning.   rev. 10/05/2016

      Section 5:  Valves, valve seats; leaded fuels; guides, valve springs, aftermarket
                         valves, noisy valves, bead-blasting,  ETC.   rev. 10/16/2016
You may be interested in reading article 40, 60-1, and 60-6

      Section 6:  Rocker arms, breakage, rocker arm shafts & bushes/bearings, valve gear,
                           pushrod tubes, cylinder heads.  Aligning the /5 valve gear.   
                           rev. 07/15/2016
You may be interested in reading articles 40, 60- subsection 1, and 60-subsection 5

      Section 7:  Camshafts, broken cam tips, cam sprockets, lifters (followers),
                            alternator & cam seals, crank nose bearing.  ZDDP.   Sports Cam
                            installations, duration, timing, etc. rev.  05/20/2016

      Section 8:  Replacing pushrod tubes & seals & collars;  Pushrods;
                            Valve cover studs; sealing cylinders.       rev. 10/12/2016

      Section 9:  Clutch, clutch arm, flywheel, carrier, bolts, upgrades, throw-out
                           clutch push-rod;
crankshaft end play spacers; 1981 clutch/carrier problems;
                           clutch cable &
ixing potential cable breakage & new cable problems; stuck
                           clutch, clutch lever bushing; preventing broken transmission ears.
                           Adjustments.          Rev.  05/24/2016
I recommend that you read article #43

Section 10.  Motor mounts/spacers:   There are 4 motor mount spacers on airheads.  The
                           two plain ones are identical & fit on the rear mount bolt (longer bolt). 
                           There are two that have welded-on spring attachment places. ONE has TWO
                           such points, it goes on the left front & is where the side-stand & center-stand
                           springs attach.  The curved part faces DOWN, curves towards you.   The other
                           has only one attachment point, & that is for the center-stand spring is
                           fitted on the right front ...the hole facing rearward.  There is a side-stand clip
                           that fits under the left rear nut, instead of the waverly lockwasher that is on
                           the other side.   NOTE that all spacers of any kind go between the engine and
                           the frame.  Torque nuts to 55 footpounds.

61. Long Distance Touring.  Dealing with Weather.  SEATS.       rev. 08/24/2016

62. Replacing a timing chain, guides, tensioner and sprockets            rev. 04/04/2016:
      Use this article with the cams article, Article 60, subsection 7

63. U-joint Phasing Photos, Paralever Driveshaft models and any driveshaft
       with Universal Joints.    rev. 10/01/2016

64. Reynolds:  Ride-off center-stands; luggage racks; tour rests, bag mounts,
       trailer hitches, etc.
       rev:   10/19/2016

65. TOOLS (very extensive information)  rev. 04/12/2016

66. Making a useful hydraulic jack, cheap    rev. 07/16/2016

67A. Engine, Frame, and other ID numbers.   How to read these
         numbers, etc., how to identify YOUR BIKE.    rev. 07/17/2016

67B. Model differences (some pre-1970) 1970-1995.  PLUS: Weights, capacities, problems.   rev. 10/16/2016

68A. Hardware and many other parts.  Not just metal parts.
        Sources not in REFERENCES 78B.  Pozi & Phillips screws DISCUSSION.
Locking methods for bolts, etc.... discussion.  rev.   07/12/2016

68B. The ROUNDEL; sizes, part numbers; BMW COMPANY HISTORY (THE REAL STORY).
rev. 10/22/2016

69. Parts Coding Symbols.  How to read the symbols on ETK, fiche, etc.
       rev.  09/30/2016

70. BMW Paint Codes 1970-?    Paint, sources, colors, codes, etc.
       rev. 10/01/2016

71A. Torque Specifications & problems; conversion factors; using torque
         wrenches. Calibration checks.  
rev. 07/22/2016

71B. Torque values for nuts/bolts/etc.        rev. 11/21/2016  

71C. Changing torque wrench range; adjustment correction using extensions.  Example for
         Airhead universal joint flange.  
rev. 07/31/2016

72. Formulas & conversion factors; including ignition timing versus piston movement 
       rev. 06/24/2016 

73. Chemicals & oils (but NOT oils for engine, gearbox, final drive).  Additives for oil and
Chassis & Spline Greases, Electrical Contact Treatments, Anti-seize, Loctite,
       Sealants, Waxes, plastic polishes, etc.    rev.  08/07/2016

74. Maintaining your leather items           rev. 08/25/2016

75A. Luggage, Windshields, Locks & Keys (except fuel caps), Instruments,
         mirrors, etc.   rev.  08/28/2016
        SEE ARTICLE 1B for details and photos on gas cap problems!
        See #44 on how to repair cracked luggage, maintain plastic, drilling windshields, etc. 
        See #73 on products to use.
        See REFERENCES  "L" for luggage for more information.
        See K bike section

75B. Albert mirrors           rev. 05/03/2016
76. Those pesky easy to lose WEDGES that fit at the handlebar controls!
      How to make one.  This is a link to a sketch in .pdf.
The part numbers for these wedges are:   32-72-2-072-233; 32-72-1-232-929;
        and 32-72-1-242-626

77A. Modifications: Engine, Clutch, Suspension, Braking, Transmission, etc....for
        Performance, Reliability, Fuel Mileage; Street/Race. rev. 09/04/2016

77B. Krauser 4 valve cylinder heads and pistons    rev. 08/18/2016 

78. Useful URL's and sources for BMW motorcyclists; groups, forums, parts,
        people, websites, companies, services.
    rev. 12/12/2016

78A. REFERENCES:   ADDITIONAL RESOURCES.   Information not in 78 nor 80.
        Includes more URL's;  e-mail addresses; contacts & descriptions; where to
        get things, service, etc. 
         Rev. dates are not listed for this article

78B. Lane Splitting & Sharing, Lane Filtering, White Lining.... in California
         (where it is quasi-legal), and around the world.     rev. 08/21/2016

78C.  Editing text and E-mail messages.  ASCII.   Printing or sending special characters from your computer.
          Using foreign computers; where is that @ symbol.   rev.  08/16/2016

79A. Side-stands; Center-stands.  Stock and Aftermarket.  rev. 11/11/2016

79B. Sidestand complaints/problems. Picking up a downed motorcycle.
rev:  10/03/2016.

      Not just BMW.    rev.  09/05/2016
      Also...VERY IMPORTANT!>>> see article 78 and 78A. 

81.  empty, on purpose

82A. INSURANCE: motorcycles & sidecar rigs; lots of things you probably did
         not think about, or know!  PLUS: Negotiating with the insurance company.
         rev:  08/09/2016

82B. What To Do (and NOT do) right away if you've been in a motorcycle
         accident.  Advice from a
Motorcyclist's Lawyer!  Rev. 04/27/2016.

83. Bob's 'sleeper' R75/5.   My radical supercharged R75/5   rev. 11/20/2016

84. See 7B about control and other cables and problems.

85. Foreign travel:  Using foreign computer keyboards:  see article 78

86. empty on purpose

You got this far, and STILL did not see what you wanted?


Oilhead motorcycle section:

O1. ABS brakes problems?   Here is a link to an article on the R1100 and R1150,
        how to reset the ABS:
        ALSO See K14A & K14B in the K-bike section, well below.

O2. Salvage yards, for oilhead parts, etc:   

O3. See article #30, above, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.      
      How to go about repairing the ignition sensors:

O4.  R1100RT: LCD Temperature & Fuel Gauge Calibration; Fuel Sender Testing &
        Cleaning, troubleshooting   rev. 10/14/2016. 

O5. Links to a website with good stuff for Oilheads, such as on the ABS system;
      TDC locating mandrel, ignition timing box, etc.    First, the main link:

       This next link is to an article on the same website.   It is on the diagnosis and
        repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition sending unit.  
       You may want to refer to my own extensive article:

O6. Bleeding/servicing the integrated brakes system:

O7. Link to German website, with LOTS of Airhead (and some R1100 oilhead)
        electrical schematic diagrams.   Click on the Shaltplan, shown in red on that
        page, for your model: 

       Those are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA or other
        non-German-shipped country bike.  Use those schematics in conjunction
        with what you find on my website. There is a LOT of information besides
        schematics on the German website.

O8. Death Rattle:  Does your R850, R1100, or R1150 Oilhead, 1993-2004, make an
       uncomfortable-to-hear rattle upon startup, or on the road?   This article describes the fix, with
       photos.  The rear-view engine cut-away photo is a REAR-view of an Oilhead motor.
       Note that the left tensioner assembly is located on top of the cylinder, "facing" downward,
       in a position that allows oil to drain out of the tensioner sleeve during shutdown. The right
       side tensioner assembly faces upward from the bottom, it remains full of oil during
       shutdown.  This is why the tensioner that is typically repaired is the left side one.  You can
       get a complete KIT at a good price, with the CORRECT parts; that was the final improvement
       method (not the intermediate BMW attempt that used some NLA parts) from Tom Cutter at
       his BMW repair center:
      This converts to the final version using the tensioner sleeve & piston assembly, from
       the R1200S and RT (not R1200C).   After installing, the noise will cease, and you can forget
       about the damage that could be caused by a timing chain tensioner failure.  The conversion
       is to Hexhead parts.

NOTE:  if the upper left guide totally fails, the engine can be destroyed.  You want to fix things
                   well before that happens.  Replacement of that upper left guide, by BMW repair manual
                   information, means splitting the cases.  For those with death rattle noises, and cam
                   chain guide rail problems (and this information should be seen for information EVEN IF
                   you are only replacing the tensioner), here is a lengthy video, that explains a lot....and
          to possibly fix the engine if you have that rail damaged, without splitting the cases. 
                   I suggest you watch the entire video.


O9. Hyperlink to a forum-type website.  Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead, Camhead, K.

O10. Hyperlink to an article on what belts were used, which to use, how to adjust
         them, & at what interval replace them, etc.

O11. Oilhead HINTS     rev.  09/25/2016

O12. Replacing an oil level sight glass rev. 11/18/2016

O13. Tool to lock flywheel and TDC locator:

O14. There is a new-style Teflon oil seal being used on ALL BMW motorcycles.
         I expect it will be used at more places for replacement purposes, over the
        this website:

O15. Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.  Rev. 11/13/2016

O16. Control Cables problems.    (Same as article 7B, Airheads section)

O17. empty on purpose

For information on electrics in general, see article 14A.
For batteries see the new battery article, #35.

All the technical information on this site is:  

If you want to donate to help maintain this site: DONATING  + information on how I operate this website!
This site has Google-sponsored advertisements on every page.  Clicking & looking at the advertisements & then clicking on something inside the advertisement is the PRIMARY way this site is supported.  Thanks for looking at them!

CLASSIC K-bike motorcycle section:
CLASSIC K-BIKES ARE K MODELS K1, K75, K100, K1100...and to some extent, the K1200.

NOTE:  Snowbum does not work on, nor have knowledge about the following bikes: 
              F  series; K 1200; S1000R; HPx; K1300; K1600 series. For those, consult others.
For those K series you might be interested in the following website:

        that appears to be a duplicate of  
Snowbum is active here
Forum style.  Classic K bikes.   Active, lots of opinions, watch for
awhile to sort out who knows, who guesses, etc. 

Snowbum isn't on this forum.  The so-called BIG LIST.  Has a section on tech. Lots of K bike stuff. 
Snowbum participates occasionally, on the TECH list.  
Main page is seldom changed, that is, hardly ever anything added to it.  
The FORUMS are active.  
K1100LT, K1100RS repair manual,2252.0.htm  Factory K bike service manuals.
Scan down here.  Classic K bikes model history, K1, K75, K100, K1100.
                             There are some things missing, and some that need embellishment, etc.  
                             There were changes in the rod lengths and pistons, the radiator got more

fins, lots of little things also.  But, Anton's list is a good one.

K1. Starter sprag clutch problems in classic K bikes     rev.  08/19/2016  

K2. Hints, advice, parts, LARGE variety of subjects!      rev.  08/17/2016
Information on converting rear, or front, or both, turn signals, to have an
       added running lamp function??.....   see article 34.

K3A. A version of the K100 schematic:   K100 Schematic Diagram, pdf format

K3B. K100LT, entire schematic diagram of whole bike.   This is a pdf, made
         directly from BMW's own information.  It is for the UK ABS version.
         In general, covers the 1987-1989 era, probably a bit more. 

K3C. This is the LEGEND for the above, 3B, schematic diagram:

K3D.  Heated Grips. This is a link to a pdf.

          A simple diagram, except for exact colors/fuses/wiring, for the K bikes.

K4. Brake squealing, any model, and very especially the K75?...see article 53 which
      DOES include information for K75, & all classic K bikes, for that matter.
      That article also has a lot of information on bleeding the brakes!

K5. Salvage yard, for parts, etc.:  (973)-775-3495.
      Some other salvage yards are listed in my references article (article 78-B).
      You can also try:

K6. See article #30 ABOVE, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.

K7. U-joint Phasing photos, any U-joint driveshaft system, including Paralever Driveshaft
       models rev. 10/01/2016

K8. K bike instrument pod.  Calibrating speedometer. Clock modification
for 12 hour clock indication. Radio codes
.    rev. 08/18/2016

K9. K bike fork oil requirements     rev. 08/14/2016 

K10. Fitting handguards/brushguards to a K1100LT  (and earlier models)
         rev.   08/14/2016 

K11A. Troubleshooting the LE-Jetronic classic K bikes (2 valve K75, 2 valve K100). 
        Register at:
HUGE amount of technical information, and even a step-by-step article, but
        you have to really search the site to find this stuff (especially by VOGEL).

 page/K100 troubleshooting Starting.pdf

              NOTE:  This above link version is MUCH MORE COMPLETE, than the one below!
         Here is another source for much of the above article, but some charts & information
         are not, strangely, in this version:
         For both, Vogel's article is entitled:  "EFI/Electronic ignition K100 2V troubleshooting"

K11B. Troubleshooting the K1100, or, any early K with the Motronic system:

K12. Front forks oil changing:  See #9, just above.  ALSO see article in

Section 54, sub- section 10B.  Also see 10A for fork alignment.

K13. Changing Coolant on a Classic K bike, how-to.  Discussion about various coolants.
        Heat on your legs.  H
eat insulation under the tank, etc.    rev. 08/14/2016  
ALSO contains notes on why the coolant job could be effected by updating
        of early K bikes from 400 watt to 700 watt alternators, ETC.

K14A. If you need to have a fuel injection computer or ABS computer brain repaired:
          Lots of good testing advice here too!

Will get you the main page, lots of
technical information there!

          See above links, then Contact Tosi at: 
Highly recommended by several people.

Here is a place in the Netherlands that does all sorts of modules/computer
          brains, etc.:

          BBA Re-manufacturing; 300 Myles Standish Blvd.; Tauntonk MA 02780
           (866) 573-2740;  (508)-822-4490
           I have TWO reports that do NOT recommend these folks, and NONE
           that DO recommend.

K14B. If you are having ABS codes problems, before you jump to conclusions,
           remove both ABS relays, clean contacts and clean the relay connection

spades too, and add contact cleaner to them.  This is also good advice
for the ABS main computer plug connections. Here are a couple of
           articles to look at:

Scan down for the ABS articles
K15. Ignition problems:  lots here on the module and Hall devices; and, how
        to set ignition timing
K16. Adjusting the steering head bearings on a K75, K100, K1100:

K17. Brake light switch problems....see article well above, #37B.  If you have a
        1985 K bike, and a stiff throttle, also read that article 37B...yes, a brakes
         switch article!   Info is well down the article.

K18. Hyperlink to a forum-type website. Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead, Camhead, K.

K19. Locks, gas caps, KEYS, etc....... I have an article, #1B and #75A, WAY above,
         that covers all of these things in depth.

K20. See Airhead section article #30 regarding the ignition circuitry, lots of useful
         information on the Hall element, etc. The following article, while for a R1100RT
         oilhead, is useful for K bike owners; it is illustrated & is about replacing the
         Hall sensors for a R1100RT repair, & is SIMILAR for a K bike:

         NOTE:  If your Classic K-bike is having irregular ignition problems, and you
                      can't find anything wrong with the ignition, remove the valve cover,
                      and check to be sure that the cover is grounded to the engine by means
                      of a coil spring that is mounted to a cam bearing mount. 

K21. Doing a rear main seal job is involved.   Here is a video of the procedure to
        R/R the main seal on a Classic K bike.  Useful for anyone wanting to know
         what/how in taking apart the bike....even if not doing a rear main seal job.

In GERMAN for sound. The mechanical support for the bike is flimsy in my
opinion.  They found one of the headers case you wonder about
         the exhaust pipe being 'shown'.

K22. Information for Classic K bikes, NOT just the K100.

Many Service Bulletins here too: 

K23. A lot of K bike information.   Has wiring diagrams and a lot of other information.
In German, but very useful!  Covers all the Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200).
 Lots more than that.  Wiring diagrams are under Shaltplän.  Use Google translator.

K24. How to replace an oil level sight glass    rev. 11/18/2016

K25A. Service Information Bulletin SI-2630R:  failure to use all fuel in the fuel tank,
          whining noise from the fuel pump.   This is a link to a PDF file on this website.
          The sketches are not very clear, so look at them with a critical eye!
           If you can furnish a really nice clear copy of that bulletin, let me know.

K25B. Replacing a fuel pump:  K1, K75, K100, K1100
    rev. 08/14/2016

K26. Engine oil, & lubrication in GREAT DEPTH:  see article 51-C

K27. Worn rear drive splines?  Bad U-joint?  Upgrade?
I suggest you look at all of the videos!

         Doing a K75 rear drive input spline and driveshaft and swing arm lubrication?
         This is a link to a how-to video, it's in German, but you will understand it.  
         Note that normally one does not pull the swing arm, in this video I suspect it
          was done to replace the boot, and check the swing arm bearings.


         Two videos on K75 and K100 rear drive spline servicing, Bruno's
           driveshaft and rear spline rebuilding, etc. 


K28. New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and airheads
         crankshaft...and K bikes at the alternator drive:

K29. Link to a 6 part video series on how to disassemble and reassemble a
        Classic K-bike, to do an input spline service.  Includes a lot of service

         and commentary on things the servicer found on this bike along the way.

Lots of good hints.    Very complete, including the swearing.

K30. Control cables problems  (same as Airheads 7B)

K31. Re-keying locks, especially fuel tank lock; problems with the cap; and other details.
Also:  see my article 1B and 75A, well above here, in the Airhead section of MY site,
          which have EXTENSIVE information.

K32. FUEL CAP on K bikes (and other bikes too). This is a video.   It covers R/R cap
internals.  No information on keying locks. 
NOTE:   The "kit" in the video,
         16-11-9-062-461R was sourced from Bob's BMW.   The "R" means Bob's is
         selling a repair kit.  Be sure to get gasket 16-11-1-453-690.   Also see my article 75A.

K33. Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

K34.  This is a link to a sketch of the clutch disc alignment tool.  It was posted 26 January, 2007, in
          Kbmw Yahoo Groups, and I have cleaned it up and posted it here for you.


NOTE! ....Many of my Airhead articles are informative for K bike and Oilhead owners; and some, such as the brakes article, are informative for all motorcycles.  Other examples are my articles 78 and 78A.  Many other examples of useful articles are in the Airheads sections.  Scattered in this long list of Technical Articles you are reading are stated references to Airheads articles that also apply to Classic K bikes, but I have probably missed a few.  I suggest you look at the entire list of articles, and see what might apply to your Classic K bike. For information on electrics in general, see article 14A.  For batteries see the new battery article, number 35.  Both of these are in the Airheads section, quite far above.

I have a page that has some motorcycle (yes, some K bike stuff too) and personal stuff for sale (or TRADE!...even FREE!):  SALE

Sidecar specific section:

When I ride my motorcycle, it makes me happy.  When I drive my sidecar rig, it makes everyone who sees me happy ........and many want to chat with me.   Therefore, allow extra time for your errands, drives, tours, etc.

(This section begins with my present sidecar rig. The technical items follows this)

Our present Sidecar rig: http://bmwmotorcycletech
.info/K1100LT-EML GT2.htm

Previously Al Olme's sidecar rig.  Shipped to me from Minnesota by HaulBikes (also known as Daily Direct); whose service is highly recommended by me & many others, including dealerships.  I removed the Police-type saddle & Authorities radio trunk prior to Penny & my 2008 trip across the USA, installing the stock seat & large standard trunk. The Police/Authorities items have been sold.  I  have City-cases, as well as Tour-bags & use whichever is appropriate, even in combination sometimes. Specifications below are in brief, as I have done a LOT of modifications.

Tug wheels:  4.5 x 14" EZS.
Tug tire, REAR:  175/70-R14 rear (back to stock P165/70R14 possibly in the future)
Tug Tire, FRONT:   165/70-R14 front (to POSSIBLY be 175 in future, or, remain same)
***I am experimenting with tire sizes on the tug***

Sidecar wheel:  #300, 15" EML with 135R15 tire (or possibly 135/80-R15 in the future)
Tire pressures:  Still experimenting with pressures on all 3 tires, even after all these years.

Front fork:  EZS Leading Link, with special fender to accommodate the tire size.
Front shocks: Koni 7610-1282 shocks (modified by me).
Brembo twin spot calipers on front wheel of tug, dual front floating discs and floating calipers, with torque arms.
ABS system removed.
Single disc rear brake uses Brembo two-piston 38 mm P108 caliper.
Rear master cylinder 16 mm Magura.
Brembo F05 sidecar disc brake plumbed to the tug's rear braking system.
Front wheel offset to right by 1-3/8".  Sidecar wheel lead 13-1/4". Toe-in 3/8". 
The need for a steering dampener, hydraulic, my modifications, is quite minimal. 
R1100S modified hand-guards.
Hotel-quality rugs in chair and chair trunk. 
Multiple types of electrical outlets in chair. 
Way over-designed/over-built TOP, designed/made HERE ...sheesh what a job!
See #9 below.

Some specifications, including empty and loaded weights & dimensions; plus a lot of SERVICE information for the EML sidecar, will be found on this website, HERE:
EML and EZS sidecars, technical repair information








The SKUNK flag stands for Sidecars Up Nort Klub. Up Nort stands for anyplace Up North of someplace. 

Snowbum is active (and a moderator) on these sidecar LISTS:
 (any and all sidecars) 
(EML sidecars)


SC1A. The good, the bad, literature and information, an overview of
            sidecars and sidecaring basics    
rev: 11/13/2016

SC1B. List of Sidecar groups on the Internet                rev: 11/14/2016  

SC1C. Hyperlink for the Evergreen Council group training schedule for Basic &
           Advanced training:

SC1D. Hyperlink to a website that has a lot of photos, videos, links, etc., about
            sidecar traveling, much is out of the USA, some videos, etc., are in English,
            but the whole site is fun to look through, and you could use Google translate:


There is a tremendous amount of information on various types of sidecar rigs
            on the Internet.  One that is seldom known about is this one:

This next link has a lot of sidecar information.  Few seem to know of this website:

SC1E. German website, lots of interesting things....if you do not read German, put
           the URL into Google Translations.


***NOTE!   If you use the Google CHROME browser, it has settings that can give you
                   automatic translating for any website you visit.

SC1F. Source for Vintage sidecar items, numerous manufacturer's items here.

SC1G.  Source for fuel tanks, valves, caps, gauge, etc:

SC2. Sidecar Tech.  Where to get information.  Manuals, mechanicals, photos,
         licensing, modifications, subframes, mounts, brakes, alignment details/photos.
         R100RT-Ural rig mounts, etc.              rev. 11/18/2016
 Be sure to see SC3

 Has a LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.  
         Be sure to download, or at least read, the three articles/books on that site furnished
         to the USCA by the late Dr. Hal Kendall:  How to drive a sidecar rig,
ETC.  Click at
         the top at Links and Books, then click on Books and Manuals.  VERY HIGHLY
 Knowledge of one book translated from an in-German book
         is not only recommended, but is NECESSARY to properly use SC2 & SC3.

SC3. Sidecar resources list, including resources for handicapped sidecar & trikes,
         Speedometer  re-calibrator, etc.    rev:   11/18/2016
    ALSO see SC2

SC4. There is a BRAKES section on this website, and it has additional information on
         the installation of brakes of various types for sidecars. This is in addition to
         information in various SCx articles here.

SC5. Sidecar and sidecarist humor  ...and a wee bit of seriousness    rev: 11/14/2016

SC6. Flying the chair; steering reversion; countersteering      rev:  11/13/2016

SC7. Miscl.  Sidecar Tech, including FUEL TANKS, brakes, TIRES, etc.
         rev: 09/04/2016

SC8. EML sidecars:  old brochure, plus LOTS of technical information on weight,
         dimensions, suspension & brakes overhaul; lamps, GT2; & other EML models,
         tires, etc.  SOME EZS information too.  
Allow time to load!   rev. 11/28/2016

SC9. EML sidecar tops; photos; description of various types of tops; AND my own
         custom top      rev. 06/11/2016
         Also see SC8, just above

SC10. LEANER rigs. FLEXIT leaner sidecar; history, photos, etc.  Other leaners;
           ....hyperlinks, etc.  rev.  06/20/2016 

SC11. EZS_steering_damper; including overhaul.  Rev. 06/16/2016
          NOTE:  See both articles 54-8A  and SC2 for steering dampeners and shock
                       absorber units that cover sidecar usages in depth!
SC12. My first "street" sidecar, a R100RT-Ural sidecar rig, was sold April 2006.
           Information & photos on that rig, including the subframes and a lot of other
           technical items.   rev. 10/20/2016

SC13. empty on purpose

SC14. If you are adding lamps, or changing lamps on a K-bike, etc.  K-hints

          MORE on Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc. :

SC15. Lousy fuel mileage:   see article 81

SC16. My present sidecar rig, see at the beginning of this sidecar section.
          Also see:
Our present Sidecar rig: K1100LT-EML GT2

My K1100LT has handguards.  See K bike section article 10 or click this line

NOTE:  see article 82, well above; about insurance!


The technical information on this site is ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

If you want to donate to help defray costs, click here: DONATING
That page also has history and information on how (and why) I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone!

Motorcycle & personal items WANTED/SELL or TRADE/BARTER: SALE
There is also some FREEEEE stuff there!

You got this far, and STILL did not see what you wanted?
There is a very good SEARCH function (unless your browser has Java or other restrictions):

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first contact the appropriate LIST for technical questions)

Specific revisions for this article are not listed here. Last check/edit: Sunday, December 04, 2016