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Clicking.. and looking at them.. helps support this site. 
 YOUR clicks are THE major support for this website!

Clicking on something inside an advertisement helps EVEN MORE!!!
I would certainly appreciate your remembering to click on various
advertisements, at the top of every page you visit!
...and thanks also, for the occasional donation!

BMW Motorcycle Repair & Information Site

"The Expatiating Scribe of the Sierra's"
© "Copyright, 2015, R. Fleischer"

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Print font too small?  Use your Browser's ZOOM feature

This website is best with wider screens.  It is NOT optimized for small screens, tablets, and smart phones.  
Some things are not displayed without scanning side to side.
This website displays best in Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. 
Users of Firefox may find color and layout anomalies.

This is NOT the HomePageThe HomePage accesses many things NOT accessible from this Technical Articles List page. 
Going from the HomePage to the technical article list page, using the clickable link at the bottom of the HomePage will
ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of any article.
 I suggest you "bookmark" (Favorites) the HomePage, NOT the
page you are looking at right now. The HomePage is:




Snowbum, by early 2015, had ~650,000 miles on BMW motorcycles


1952, January...
There's a road here someplace!




Animation by Mo Massen; furnished to me by Alessandro Zorat


Technical information on this website is 

But, if you want to help with website costs, click here:   DONATING
That page has history and information about this website.





Internet mailing LISTS, Groups, Airheads Club & website, Facebook:

New to Internet Mailing Lists?  Especially if new to BMW motorcycle riding & riders:
Please click & read the short article!:
After which you may want to read this:

Airhead (??):
"Airhead" is slang for a BMW boxer (two-cylinders, opposed) air-cooled motorcycle manufactured between
December 1969 (the /5 series) and the end of its production in 1996. "Airhead" does NOT include the
boxer twins known as Oilheads, Hexheads, Camheads, Waterheads, etc .

Please post technical inquiries to the Airheads LIST regarding Airheads.
Please post technical inquiries to the Kbmw LIST regarding Classic K
bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100).

Post to other LISTS below, as appropriate.
By posting to the appropriate LIST, your questions, and answers which may come from several sources on
that LIST, and not just me, will help more than just you.  This helps me, as I can not keep up with individual
replies......I need time to eat, sleep, and have a life!

The clickable places below show how to join the Airheads CLUB, and how to become a member of its FREE
internet LIST.   The website contains extensive technical articles, some of which I wroteTry
not to confuse the website with the Airheads internet mailing LIST, nor the Airheads Beemer
Club.  Many if not most Airhead owners are members of all. When a paid member of the CLUB, you receive
the monthly publication, AIRMAIL.
Airheads CLUB website:
You can join on that site; or, obtain a snail-mail form, copied from the last page of the monthly Airmail,
from a Member.

All the E-mailing LISTs I have noted in this longish section are primarily for immediate, personalized,
technical information.

You can subscribe to the AIRHEADS LIST by going to the following URL, scan down a bit, and follow
Snowbum is a Moderator/Administrator on that LIST.

I suggest you do NOT use the Airheads List Digest mode, it is much less helpful than you might think. 
Digest mode WILL...or MIGHT... require YOU to do much more editing in replying. You will also not see
how to reply to a single sender.  Failure to do editing is VERY annoying for you and recipients using
hand-held devices, and excessive message length costs money for those that pay by the byte. Without
proper BASIC editing technique you will post entire digests with your replies...a big NO! NO!  Basic
editing instruction is available here:

Hint (this method applies to any E-mailing LIST and many FORUMS):

Put  into your computer E-mail address book, perhaps using a nickname
such as "Airheads"; so you don't have to type the full address when YOU want to post a message.
Most E-mail programs can do this.  If need-be, set your program to accept LIST messages. You will
post and receive mail to/from:

I suggest you set your outgoing messages, for the particular LIST or FORUM, for PLAIN TEXT
You cannot post html (images, colors, etc.) to the Airheads LIST; your message size is limited to 100Kb

To see all the Micapeak mailing lists and to sign onto any of them:

***NOTE: does
NOT spam you; does NOT sell or otherwise pass out your E-mail
                  address; does
NOT put advertising into your/other folks E-mail messages.

Other websites, including Facebook Groups, etc:

Airheads have a Facebook Page:     2333 members as of January 20, 2016
This is a closed Group, so ask to be a Member.   This site is becoming very active, with a lot of members,
and social and technical things are commonly discussed.  Snowbum is an active Member.

NOTE!   There are other Facebook-based Airheads groups:     Australia, etc; 6112 members as of January 20, 2016          2671 members as of January 20, 2016   Australia and New Zealand; 2538 members as of January 20, 2016

All the above groups have substantial followings in other countries, including the USA.

***I have BIG problems with Facebook, besides such as security concerns.  It is difficult to find threads in the good search methods.  Replies help only a few at a time.   ETC.   I heartily suggest you use Facebook
for what it was intended-for:  Social Media.  Use the Airheads LIST for technical questions/information:

THE major sidecarist's LIST is
Snowbum is active on that LIST, and is a Moderator. It is sometimes very quiet.  The SCT in that address stands
for SideCarTalk, being just how the LIST was named.  This LIST is primarily technically oriented.

Technical LIST for EML sidecars:
Snowbum is active on this LIST, and is a Moderator. This list is primarily technically oriented. Typically very quiet.
The SCL in that address stands for SideCarLounge, being just how the LIST was named.

Western USA branch of the United Sidecar Association:  
Snowbum monitors this list. It is primarily for chit-chat, places, people, events, etc. It tends to be quiet.
 A LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.   Be sure to download, or at
least read, the three article/books on that site furnished to the USCA by the late Dr. Hal Kendall, how to set up
and drive a sidecar rig, ETC.  Click at the top at Links and Books, then click on Books and Manuals. 

If you own a Classic K-bike (K1, K75, K100, K1100), join the K-bmw mailing LIST.
Snowbum is active on this LIST, which is primarily technically oriented:

Internet-based FORUM for the K1200-K1300 series:
Snowbum does not participate.

There is a K11 owners group list.  The site is quite active in the FORUMS section.         
Snowbum does not usually participate.

Sometimes known as "The Big LIST", the following website covers all BMW motorcycles, with lots of
technical things.
Be cautious about what technical advice/information you see and
use...some is not good.  Snowbum monitors and sometimes participates on the IBMWR tech list, which
you can sign up for, on the .org site noted.

Oilheads, Hexheads, Camheads, K bikes:
Snowbum does NOT monitor nor participate here.
Some other important LISTS and FORUMS are shown in this Technical Articles List page in the K bike
or Oilhead areas.

NOTE: the BMW Motorcycle Owners of America (BMWMOA) has forums on just about every BMW
product since BMW began, right up to the present moment.  You must be a member to access and
participate.  Snowbum participates on the BMWMOA Airheads forum now and then.

Legal stuff:

The information on this website is provided at no cost and without any warranty whatsoever.  It is my
personal information & opinion, which you may use at your own discretion, for personal use only. Your
usage does NOT make me liable for any problems.    Improperly maintained motorcycles can lead to
serious injury or death or unavoidable accidents.  I am not responsible for any errors contained herein,
and I make no claims whatsoever as to the safety, validity, or veracity of the information contained in
these documents. Any use of the information contained in/on this website, that leads to any work you
choose to do or not to do on your or anyone else's motorcycle is done at your own risk. If you do not
know what you're doing, take your motorcycle to a reputable shop with skilled professional mechanics. 
The instructions & information contained on these various pages merely document how the author may
do his own maintenance.

Copyright information:               ©

MOST of the articles on this website are copyrighted.   ALL ARTICLES WRITTEN BY ME AND LISTED ON
(unless otherwise noted).  My copyright exists whether or not you see the 
© copyright symbol. 

Website pages show a copyright date at the top, and at the bottom.  These are NOT necessarily the date
that the original article was copyrighted by me.  You are granted use of my website pages for yourself, as
printed or electronic copies.   You are also granted approval for incorporation by reference (or hyperlink
to my articles) for many other uses.  You must not abridge, modify, shorten, or otherwise edit my articles,
unless it is made clear that you are doing so, and YOU MUST prominently note any change in INTENT, or
INFORMATION.  You are NOT granted permission to DUPLICATE my articles, in part, or entirety, without
prior permission from me, except as above noted.   Commercial duplication; or, editing/publishing/sales
in any manner the content or part-content of my articles; and/or failure to quote me as the source/author,
use of plagiarism, etc.; including other commercial activity, beyond what is specifically herein allowed
without specific permission, will result in public announcement of same, and, if you do not cease & desist,
will LIKELY result in prosecution under the laws of the United States.  These are
NOT idle threats, I HAVE
legally gone after those who plagiarize & misuse my written articles; including for monetary damages &
lawyers fees.  I'm VERY protective of my articles...
but I will usually grant you usage beyond just for ask!

On purpose I do not make money off my articles (except if someone clicks on a Google Ad-Sense
advertisement), and I don't want you to.  I also do not want you copying my material to disc or other
media, and then selling them, even at cost, even for just the media materials.  Keep in mind that I update
 my website constantly.  Only the on-line version is going to be accurate and up-to-date.  Providing
outdated information by you, or anyone else, is BAD.

You do NOT need my permission, if you follow the preceding, to use my TECHNICAL material in many
ways, but if you have any questions, you may e-mail me.   e-mail

One of the things that REALLY ticks me off is misquoting me.  Even more-so is modifying my articles, or
parts of them, & then claiming them as YOUR work. Plagiarism is what this is called.  Note what I said
above: I WILL pursue you LEGALLY for MONETARY & other damages, and I will do it to the absolute
maximum the Court gives me. 
This is NOT an idle threat!

I try to allow YOU the widest possible & reasonable use of my articles/content.  The rest of this Copyright
section explains things in a simpler fashion:

are two words that describe a way for a copyright holder (that's ME!) to grant
YOU permission for MY WORK to be copied, distributed, or adapted...IF....certain conditions are met,
that is, 'Some Rights Reserved'.     So, to keep this simple:   You may use my work if you keep my name
with it, and you LINK to my original work (and ANY modifications or additions or comments by you or
anyone using your copies, etc., are prominently so-noted).  Such must not be misleading to those who
might read or see my material.  You may use my material ONLY for non-commercial purposes, unless
you have MY permission.  Creative Commons does NOT grant you unlimited rights; in some instances

If you have a website, & your page where you have placed something from MY website (or a hyperlink
to my website, which is always appreciated!) has advertisements that pay you income if folks reading
your website click on those ads, I DO NOT consider your webpage to be commercial use of my material,
so I do NOT restrict your use of my material on such a page, so long as your usage is within what I have
stated in this Copyright Information section.

I  frequently  update  articles on this website, sometimes daily.   This is important if you use a search
engine that saves pages & doesn't update pages until they are next scanned; and who knows when
that is (no matter the coding I use to try to get their robots to do it more often and to restrict caching).
An OLD scan MIGHT or MIGHT NOT be listed as 'cached'.    It is best to go directly to this website's
HomePage, and from there go to the Technical Articles List page.   The HomePage contains access to
MANY things NOT on, not even accessible, from this Technical Articles List page you are now looking at. 
Going from the HomePage to this Technical Articles List page (via the link at the bottom of the HomePage)
will 100% of the time give you the LATEST version of any article by then clicking on it in the long list.   
Please pay attention to what I am saying in this paragraph.  I suggest you Bookmark ('Favorites') the
HomePage, and NOT the page you are looking at right now. 
Click HERE: and bookmark (favorites) THAT URL.
Important revision/editing dates are shown at the bottom of all pertinent pages/articles and such important
revision date is also shown in this Technical Articles List Page.   I MAY make minor revisions withOUT
changing dates.  That is just one more reason to use the HomePage entrance, as you ALWAYS get the
latest version that way.

NOTE!  YOUR OWN BROWSER may cache an OLDER page from my website!  If there is ever a question
about having the latest version of one of my pages/articles, I suggest you 'refresh' the browser.   This is
done in various ways depending on your computer.  If you are using Windows, simply tap the F5 key once.  
If you are doing something potentially critical to your motorcycle, please consider this strongly.

Please report errors/omissions/comments to me, and such are welcomed.       E-mail

Our bikes are getting old; the oldest Airheads (Airheads began with the 1970 models) are now officially
regarded as ANTIQUES.  You can NOT rely on just any BMW dealership for repair work, not even for the
proper parts and parts numbers.  Dealership personnel may well NOT have the proper knowledge nor
background.  I suggest you strongly consider independent repair centers, especially ones that participate
on LISTS & FORUMS.   Be cautious about SOME independents that put videos on such as YouTube. 
I DO recommend certain shops, and individuals, upon request.  Especially see my pages 78 and 78A, below.

BMW sometimes has incorrect part numbers, and sometimes ships the wrong parts or poorly made
parts.  Be careful when ordering from companies, foreign or domestic, that may not be selling genuine
or REALLY equivalent BMW parts.  BMW has published SERVICE INFORMATION ERRORS!  These
published errors get passed along when re-published, by such as Clymers or Haynes!  In some instances
I DO have "corrections to Clymers or Haynes, etc"  type of information on this site.

If you cannot find what you want in this website from searching manually, then click in the box below.  
The search page has information on HOW to search, plus the actual search function.   The search
engine for this website is VERY good, but if it does not work for you, you probably have settings in
your computer software that are restricting the search engine. I placed the SEARCH button box in
numerous places on this website.


Airhead, K, and household things to sell OR TRADE (AND...things I want):    Click!
There is also some FREEEEE stuff!




"There is always a greater idiot."

 Make something idiot proof and you will eventually see a demonstration of this saying.

A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof
 is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools.

"The measure of a man's character is what he would do if he knew he
never would be found out." - Baron Thomas Babington Macauley

"An expert is someone who has made all the mistakes which can be made,
in a very narrow field." --Niels Bohr

"...You cannot prove a vague theory wrong. Also, if the process of computing the
consequences is indefinite, then with a little skill any experimental results can be
made to look like the expected consequences." Richard Feynman, 1964

There are three kinds of men:
The ones that learn by reading. The few who learn by observation.
The rest of them have to pee on the electric fence.
- Will Rogers

"We have all heard that a million monkeys banging on a million typewriters will
eventually reproduce the entire works of William Shakespeare. Now, thanks to the
Internet, we know this is not true."
-Robert Silensky

"There is no practical reason to create machine intelligences indistinguishable
from human ones. People are in plentiful supply. Should a shortage arise, there are
proven and popular methods for making more."

Under democracy one party always devotes its chief energies
to trying to prove that the other party is unfit to rule
--and both commonly succeed, and are right...
-H.L. Mencken

E-mailing snowbum:  CLICK!

What's with this lamp?  Interested in SuperTech?
Click HERE for details!


































All the technical information on this site is: ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

If you want to help maintain this website:   DONATING

Don't trust a mechanic without an attitude.
Folks who know how to do things have opinions, & opinions aren't changed easily.

If the print font is too small, I suggest you use your Browser's ZOOM feature.
Eventually all pages will be in larger font, but will be a long time to edit them all.

Reading beyond this point and/or using content in my articles constitutes acceptance of my terms and conditions.

Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum gets OFF & RUNNING!

Temporary'll never know what is HERE!



Nerdy Stuff!

Picking up a downed motorcycle; and, a few things about side-stands

My 1984 R100RT bike, parts & many special tools, were sold.   The present owner and I have shared this bike in the past.

Hyperlink,  humorous 'A Winter Tale': CLICK!

All the technical information on this site is:  

If you want to donate to help defray costs, click: DONATING.
That page has information on how I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone, and MUCH MORE.

BMW numbers parts & service by GROUPS & sub-groups.  Showing all of them:

Our Sidecar rig:

Whitebeard, a short and true story of a happening to one of my bikes, a 1957 R60, originally published by me in 1987 in BMW MOA Owners News.

 Deer Whistles

Military Folks

Snowbum lives at  Lake Tahoe,  California

Temporary stuff

R45 & R65 Owner's Manual

R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S, Owner's Manual

The Paradox of our Age. By the Dalai Lama

For newer BMW POLICE bikes:  Parts information;
Technical information, Service Bulletins.

Model Differences over the years

Long Distance Touring


SEARCH  this website: CLICK!

Who the HELL is Snowbum?

A FEW German words to know

Proficient at editing E-mails?    Special symbols?  Using Foreign computers? 

This link leads to a page where you can download a lengthy & FREE pdf guide to riding off-road.  It is much better than the one I wrote.  I deleted mine, in favor of this one:

Even if you never ride off road, this has some great hints.  If you ever get onto a gravel road, soft stuff, etc., you also should read this.

Purchasing an old Airhead? 

Getting started on doing your own motorcycle



Buying or Selling a motorcycle

Photo Galleries
 #1      #2

#3       #4
#5       #6


Join the Airheads Beemer Club!

Fleischer's Service??

Prostate Cancer;  REAL FACTS! 
Kept up-to-date!

and Sayings

Photographs, story, our trip around the USA


An Essay on Loud Pipes, etc.

There are many methods of supporting your motorcycle for ease in working on it.  Some use motorcycle lifts. I certainly did that at my BMW business, but I don't for my own personal garage-shop, as there is very limited room.  I use the side-stand or center-stand for most work.  I also have an anchoring method that enables me to easily remove & work on almost any part of the motorcycle aft of the front wheel.  This is a link to my method:

lso FREE items here.

Motorcycling to Alaska 


Maintenance schedules for all BMW motorcycles (even the C1 scooters) available on the Internet:

My Airhead maintenance schedule is on MY site, and is much better. CLICK!



If the print font is too small, I suggest you use your Browser's ZOOM feature.

FUEL System in your Airhead motorcycle

(An article on fuel mileage, in depth, is #81)

1A. Fuel filters, petcocks, fuel flow, re-fueling, choke lever on clamshell models.
       rev. 11/28/2015
       Additional information is in article #1B and 12A

1B. Fuel caps:  Removing a bad cap; R/R locks; venting problems, ETC.
        Airheads AND Classic K bikes.      rev 09/02/2014

2. Luftmeister Auxiliary Fuel Tanks  rev. 10/09/2012

3A.  Bing CV Carburetors, PART 1; GENERAL NOTES, HINTS, leaking tops & 
         dome inserts, tricky enrichener discs/shafts assemblies, aligning butterflies.
         rev. 01/06/2016

     Be sure to read article 6, below, yes, even if you do not have a /5.
there is no overhaul nor adjustments article on this website for the Bing
              model 53 'slide' carburetors, as used on the R50/5, R60/5, R60/6, and R60/7.
             They are straightforward.  They use the SAME floats as the CV carburetors.
              For acceleration pump parts check with both BMW and with Bing Agency.
              One of the Airlist Members made some 'washers' that fit the acceleration
              pump, making them of nylon material.  3.556 mm x 0.33 mm. I have not confirmed this.

3B. Bing Carburetor PART 2; MORE GENERAL NOTES, high altitude JETTING
     changes, tuning, hard-starting, ETC.     rev. 01/07/2016

4.  Bing carburetor Floats.  Rev. 01/08/2016

5. Bing dual-independent float kit                  rev.  02/09/2016  

6. Early Bing CV Carburetors used on R75/5, idle problems, ETC!
     rev. 10/03/2013
     This article has some information that applies to ALL Bing CV carburetors,
      so I suggest you READ IT!

7A. Synchronizing Carburetors; the whole story, in awful depth.  12/17/2015 

7B.  ALL CABLES! Throttle; clutch; speedometer; tachometer.   Speedometer cable rubber boot
       at transmission.
Control assembly perch's/wedges.   rev. 02/05/2016
        For control assembly perches/wedges, see item 76

8. Throttle screws; friction & anti-friction devices; Snowbum, OFF and RUNNING!
rev. 06/23/2013

9. R80 fuel mileage problems; R80 airbox modifications.     rev.    10/13/2012
     NOTE!   Fuel mileage problems, all models:  See article #81.

10. Tuning Intake and Exhaust systems; PLUS Premium fuels vs mileage and
       combustion temperatures             rev. 09/18/2015

11. Removing & plugging the Pulse Air and Evaporative emissions & fuel shutoff
      systems; the tank flapper valve; SHED caps; they work, ETC.    rev.  10/19/2015

12A. Fuel System:  Tank cleaning;  premium vs regular; additives; TEL; alcohol;
        fitting other tanks & seats. Throttle and choke cables.  Fuel hose. Tank lining
        cleaning, sealing.  rev:  12/22/2015
        An article that describes Lead Substitutes, in depth, is here: VALVES

Gasoline's: This is a link to an article not by article by me.
       Truly curious? Technically minded? This long article describes octane,
       gasoline, leaded fuel, unleaded fuel, additives.  There are interesting things
       here and there in this article, from which you could also get to other
       parts/versions by re-arranging the URL.

12B. Bing carburetors that urinate...weep, leak, onto your boot, onto the ground,
         floor, garage, grass, wherever.   rev.  01/29/2016

12C. The K & N air filter, the UNI air filter, stock air filters, .....etc.    rev. 12/24/2015  

13. The Dell'Orto Carburetor                               rev.  02/08/2016        
Huge amount of information on how ALL types of carburetors operate,
       especially needle/slide types, but also vacuum types and in particular
       the Dell'Orto carburetors.
  SPECIFIC information on Dell'Orto settings for
       R90S Airheads.  Where to obtain parts.  A link to an article on converting an
       Airhead to use the Dell'Orto (only the R90S CAME with them).  Links to
       other carburetor articles of considerable value.  Links to the factory DellOrto
       manuals (ON this website!) are also here.   There are MANY sketches/photos
       in this article.  Allow TIME to load up if you are on a slow connection.

All the technical information on this site is        DONATING

Electrical System: Out This Schematic.pdf

AIRHEADS electrical schematic diagrams:

    R80G/S, R45, R65 and R80ST, are all similar.

    R65, ST, GS & G/S instrument pods are similar. 
    RS and RT are identical to each other. 

    R50/5, R60/5 & R75/5 use same diagrams, but
    there are two, the later one has fuses. 

    R60/6, R75/6, R90/6, R90S will all be very similar. 

    /6 & later with early style pods (pods NOT like
    the R65, ST, G/S, GS), will have similar pods,
    differences are few & are noted in this website.

    /7 is mostly similar to the last of the /6 series. 


BMW's schematics for early eighties bikes MAY have errors.   As an example, BMW's diagrams for 1981 & later show IGNITION POINTS, not ignition module, etc. for a particular model; all such models actually had electronic ignition.

14. How to buy & use test lamps and multimeters, basics+.  rev.  08/11/2014

14A. De-mystifying & Troubleshooting BMW Airhead Boxer Motorcycle Electric
systems; includes battery and charging information        rev. 01/18/2016
        Lots of good basic electricity information here; plus troubleshooting. 
        Also see article 15.

14B. Critique of the ChiTech Electrics School Manual; additional tech information.
         rev.  02/04/2016  

14C. Just about everything you need to know about how relays actually work.
        Includes Bosch/DIN numbered pins information.
         NOTE:  When I tried that link, it asked for sign-in, but after a few seconds,
                      that disappeared and the article did appear.

15. Electrical hints and problems; descriptions of functions, ETC.
       rev.  01/18/2016

15-A. Alternators:  WHY 3 phases?  The STOCK Bosch (including TESTED OUTPUT), substitutions, ETC.
          More engineering information.  rev. 01/01/2016
Article 15-B has additional discussion about how the alternators and other parts
          operate together.

15-B. Troubleshooting the Alternator/Charging system.....+, How it all works.    12/27/2015

15-C. Aftermarket Alternators:  installation, capability, performance.
            rev. 12-26-2015         
 refer to 15-A also

15-D. Really BIG alternators on Airheads                  rev. 07/26/2013 

15-E. Why do alternator rotors fail?  How to replace a bad rotor.   
rev. 02/12/2015
           WARNING!!!...rotor removal tools potential problems!!
  What about the reliability of the EnDuralast?  Omega?   

16-A. Starter & Starting Problems;  Valeo to Bosch; Bosch to Valeo;
         FITMENT problems--broken nose cones, etc; Denso starter install;
         starter relays; solenoids; OVERHAUL.     Rev. 01/14/2016

Starter doesn't engage or function.  Starts, or barely, won't stay running properly.
ALSO: Information on the various starter models and different circuits over the years.
         Battery load testing and wiring check, using the starter motor.
         rev. 08/29/2015                see #35 also.

17. Alternator rotors, stators, brushes, cautions. DIY!   rev. 01/01/2016

18. Diode Boards & Grounding Wires + information on testing power diodes
      rev. 12/28/2015

19. Alternator 'GEN' lamp circuit & resistor (AND, possibly LED) modifications.
       rev. 02/02/2014 

20. Testing Voltage Regulators; high output and/or adjustable regulators)
        rev. 09-14-2014

21. Servicing a Bosch Mechanical Voltage Regulators (INCLUDING the /2)
       rev. 01/12/2016

22. Making adjustable the Bosch & Wehrle ELECTRONIC METAL CAN voltage
egulators              rev.  09/14/2014

23A. Increasing the voltage output of the Wehrle PLASTIC voltage regulator 
         (for tinkerers and nerds)      rev.  10/15/2012

23B. Schematic diagram of one version of the electronic voltage regulator 
         rev. 10/15/2012 

24A. Lamps.  Adding relays, lamp substitutions, larger headlights,
        MODULATORS, sockets, updating /5 headlight, heavier wire,
        LED's, HID, ETC.     rev. 10/13/2015
             See also 24-C and 34.

24B. How the headlight switch & relay works.  Understanding the finer details of
         information in article 24A.   Airheads, Oilheads, K, etc.    rev. 09/15/2014

24C. Headlight modulators. Federal Law. California Law. Technical details. 
        Links to sites with the laws and regulations, + ALL types of motorcycle
        lighting; headlight brightness, links.  LIGHTS EFFECTS ON HUMANS.  rev. 12/10/2015

24D.  Motorcycle safety: How to make ourselves more recognizable/conspicuous/visible; pros and cons too!
         This article is a work in process            rev. 11/17/2015

25. Replacing a 5 speed neutral switch (& selecting the correct switch)
       rev. 09/15/2014

26. Metric & American Wires, Colors, Bosch wiring Codes, wire sources;
       schematics, etc.
        rev. 08/28/2014

27. Installing an accessory electrical outlet, precautions, etc.    rev.  12/14/2015

28. Ignition Theory; Spark Ignition Systems.   rev. 11/08/2015

29. Ignition timing; automatic advance units for single and dual-plug engines;
       single spark plug Airheads; points; condensers; amplifiers; COILS, etc!
       rev. 08/07/2015

30. IGNITION:  Points; Timing lights;  Ignition Modules; Ignition Canister
      (rebuilding yourself or sending them out); Coils;
Spark Plug Suppressor Caps;
      Dyna & Boyer, etc. Ignitions;  rubber sealing strip; sources for modules & Hall
      sensors & springs; testing & troubleshooting (including HIGH IDLE RPM); Points
      Boosters/Amplifiers.  Timing by means of piston movement (see 72).     rev. 12/28/2015 

     Some of the Hall sensor information applies to the K and Oilhead bikes.   I highly
      recommend you read both #29 and #30, above; as an understanding of both articles
      may well be needed if you are contemplating changes or repairs.

     Here is a link to an article on the diagnosis and repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition
      sending unit.  This article has some explanations & details that may help you understand
      the Airhead electronic ignition.

31. Dual Plugging: includes discussion on milling heads, shaving cylinders, etc. rev. 06/14/2015

32. SPARK PLUGS; threaded holes; torques; ANTISEIZE (OR NOT), spark plug caps & wire
       assemblies; resistor & non-resistor spark plugs, Airheads & K-bikes.    rev. 12/25/2015

33. Ampmeters (ammeters) v. Voltmeters (and voltmeter problems)   rev. 01/03/2016

34. Adding Running Lamp Function to Turn Signals  rev. 12/20/2015

35. New or rejuvenating a battery?  Filling a new flooded battery; initializing properly; other battery
       types (including lithium); which battery to purchase; sources; usage; chargers (SMART or not);
       peculiarities; BMW motorcycle batteries, chargers, initialization, flooded, new battery, de-sulfating
       Charging voltages; How to Load Test a Battery; ETC.             rev: 02/19/2016.

See 16B for how to load test a battery using the starter motor.

36. Accessing the headlight bucket on RS/RT, cleaning headlamp/glass, aiming a headlight.
       rev. 10/03/2012

37. Slash 5 (/5) starter relay 'cricket' noise & starting problems.  Slash 5 (/5) bikes with stock
       starter relays SHOULD RECEIVE THIS MODIFICATION        rev. 05/25/2015

37A. Tachometers:   connections, wire colors, retrofitting to earlier models;
         checking calibration (mechanical OR electronic type).    REPAIRS.
         rev. 12/20/2015

37B. Airheads and K bikes:  Broken front and/or rear brake light switches.    Stiff K bike throttles for 1985.
         rev. 01/23/2016

38A. CAN-Bus, OBD-II, ....what is this??.   How it works.  What about the future?
        WiFi in cars?  WiFi in motorcycles?.....what is really coming, soon!
        Telematics?  CAUTIONS on desulfation mode on Smart Chargers.  rev. 01/28/2016

Regarding section 38B onwards to the end of 38x:
I have obtained schematic diagrams posted on this website from a variety of sources. 
NONE are from the otherwise excellent Chitech BMW Electric School Manual, which
is still offered for sale.   MANY schematics in that Manual are difficult to read & some
are fuzzy.  I DO recommend you purchase that manual, see my URL page for how to
obtain a copy.  There is a critique, with some corrections, that I made for that manual:

I PROBABLY HAVE every schematic diagram for every Airhead (& most other BMW models
to 1996 or so).  My collection includes most all of the World versions. There are literally
HUNDREDS of diagrams,  including accessories ...even such as the early Airheads when
they were available with Avon fairings.  Diagrams include those for heated grips, special
lighting, & Authorities (Police) models.   There are CONSIDERABLE similarities between
various models. HOWEVER, there are enough schematics already on this website to
enable you to work on your bike.

If you need to contact me for a specific diagram, or perhaps something is not clear to you
about a schematic on my website, you may ask me.  I would like to know what the problem
is, if any, whether an interpretation or specific ill; AND, if you need a schematic for the main
frame diagram, or engine or some sub or accessory item that is not already covered on my
website.  I will need to know your BMW model, its year, and if a USA or Euro.  It would be
very helpful if you knew the model code that BMW uses for your motorcycle.  If you do
not know the model code, DO furnish the full serial number or VIN number.

Sometimes questions you may have will be answered by referring to my electrical hints
article #15, or some other article in the Electricals section of my website.



Link to a German website, that has a LOT of Airhead (& some R1100 oilhead & other) electrical schematic diagrams...and MORE than just that. You will have to snoop around a bit (probably) & click on the Shaltplane or Shaltplaene. The site keeps getting re-arranged & the actual address for the diagrams to be selected by you keep varying. Might be best to just go to the homepage: & start from there. But, you can try the address below, it may work:
These are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA motorcycle or for other countries. Use these schematics in conjunction with what you find on my website. There is a LOT of information besides schematics on this German website. The site contains information on a WIDE variety of subjects, not just electrical items.


Links for more electrical schematics, etc., are found in article #80, below.

Some BMW schematics will show things NOT on YOUR bike, which were special equipment or added accessories.   Special equipment items have their own article here, see #38B, just below!

38B. Miscl. Electrical schematics for Hazard flasher system, fold-out
          fog/driving lights, heated grips, VDO instruments.  Replacing a /6 left-side
          handlebars switch.  Substitute voltmeters and clocks.  rev.  05/09/2013 

38C. Schematic diagrams in three formats: .gif; .pdf; and .bmp;
          for R90S, R60S, R75/6, R90/6; for 1975 & into 1976.          rev. 10/13/2012

Here is a link to someone else's diagram for the above bikes.  This version
       is in pdf format, and has the wiring and items shown in various colors.  It is
       quite differently displayed than the above 38C diagram.  You might want to take a look
       at this one:

38C+. Schematic diagram for 1974 model, /6 series, EURO, type 0271 

38D. Schematic diagram for the 1978 Airheads, as .pdf, includes legend.

38E. Schematic diagram for the /5 electricals, last model, fused, .pdf

38F. Schematic Diagrams for both early and late /5.  Early model had no fuses.  Set your
         browser to expand the image as needed, it WILL be clear.

Schematic Diagram for the late /5, as a .gif; model with fuses:   CLICK

38G. Schematic diagram, 1981 R100, R100CS, as .pdf 
        SIMILAR to many of this era.    See just below too.

        Schematic diagram, 1981-1984.   A different type of sketch than the above
         one. This schematic is German.  Compare this to the above one.
         Legend for the numbered and lettered "items" in this schematic: legend

         Early eighties schematic diagram, of the colored type of presentation:

38H. Schematics & wires colors diagrams & descriptions for 1981-1985 R65,
         R65LS, R45, R80ST, ETC.     (.jpg, and .pdf)       rev. 10/13/2012

Schematic for the above bikes, but EURO version:   CLICK

38i. Schematic diagram for 1979-1980 R100RS, series 0427 as shipped to various
        countries, full base diagram.  pdf format

38J.  Main lighting diagram.   pdf format.  Covers above (38i) into the early 1980's.

38K. PDF diagrams for R100GSPD:


38L. Schematic diagram and Legend, 1989 and later R100RS/R100RT, USA,
          pdf format, TWO pages

38M. Replacing a /5 ignition switch with a round barrel type switch:

Here is a link for a KIT to basically do a barrel switch installation:


38N. Radio codes:  Key OFF.  PRESS and HOLD "M"; turn key on.  If code does
         not display, contact dealer or radio shop.   You should have written
         the code down when you purchased the bike! came with it!

38O. Heated Clothing:   At this time I CAN NOT recommend Gerbings products,
          due to problems, reported from MANY, with personnel, workmanship, etc.
         I CAN recommend Widder heated clothing products.   Aerostitch products
          are also good.   See my references article.

38P. empty on purpose


Electrical contact cleaners and treatments are in article 73.



Mechanical?  Electrical?  BOTH? .....NEITHER?

39A. F, OT, S, and Z marks on your Flywheel (clutch carrier);
         re-marking, alignment, degreeing camshafts. RE-INSTALLING Flywheel (or clutch carrier),
         rev.  12/11/2015
        For Automatic Timing Units, in depth, see article 29.

39B. Mis-adjusted carburetors and/or sticky automatic timing units can cause
         high rpm, typically after full warm-up.  See article #30, which has a section
         on just this problem.

39C. How to safely transport your motorcycle (like in a truck or trailer, etc.)    rev 09/18/2014

39D. ALASKA....a LOT of information on trips to Alaska, that you NEED if going there; rev. 12/22/2015

39E. Buried traffic light detection loops; bike triggering problems with them.

39F. NERDY stuff      rev. 10/13/2014

39G. /5 article on disassembly and repairs, etc:

39H. For information on timing an engine via measured piston movement, see item 72 below.

"Bookmark" (Favorites) the HOMEPAGE, and NOT the page you are looking at
right now.  The HOMEPAGE is

Revision/Editing dates are listed at the bottom of most pages/articles. 
The homepage contains
access to things NOT on, nor accessible from the Index of Technical Articles list page you are
now looking at.  Going from the HomePage to an article, via the link at the bottom of the
homepage, will ALWAYS give you the LATEST version of the article.


Mechanical Systems, and 'other stuff':

There are many methods of supporting your motorcycle for ease in working
on it. Some use motorcycle lifts. I certainly did that at my BMW business but
I don't for my own personal garage-shop, as there is very limited room. I use
the side-stand or center-stand for most work. I also have a front tire/wheel
anchoring method that enables me to easily remove & work on almost any
part of the motorcycle aft of the front wheel. Link to my method:

40. Setting Valves; how to do it correctly.  ALSO: What happens when
a valve comes apart and tries to destroy the engine.    rev. 08/21/2013
After reading this, I recommend reading article 60 section 1; 60-6; 60-5.

41. Overheating, excessive idle time, etc.                rev. 09/22/2014        

42. The pre-1970 slinger service; including the /2 slinger service.
       rev. 09/22/2014

43. Transmission input (clutch) splines, throwout bearing, clutch arm cleaning,
lubrication & inspection, adjusting swing arm.  Early swing arm bearing seal rings.
       Rev. 11/29/2015. 
CLUTCH article, Section 60, item 9, below, has extensive information
on the throw-out bearings, and "everything clutch".          
See Article 7B about control cables.               
New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and airheads crankshaft and K
bikes at alternator drive:   SI-00-053-88-new-style-seals.pdf

44. Maintaining paintwork, aluminum, windscreen & helmet visor/shield. Drilling/cutting
       plastics like your windshield. Repair cracked luggage & fairings. Pesky hollow rivets.
       Cleaning aluminum wheels.  BENT LEVERS? Cleaning grunged-up exhaust systems.
rev.  12/31/2015
Article 73 has information on products to use to maintain plastic visors,
       shields, ETC.     Also see article 75A

45. Rear Wheel Splines; Rear Drive Output Splines; Rear Drive Oil Leaks/oil levels;
      Replacing a Rear Drive Left Seal, Inner seal, Nose seal; Oil Leaks with
      Drum Brakes; Leaking oil drain plugs; Monolever & Paralever Cardan
      Bearings; Rear Drive overhaul, Rivets, Wheel Cup; ETC.  Rev. 04/01/2014

46. Exhaust pipe finned (spider) nuts. PLUS recommendations for exhaust
       replacements (MORE in references article 78A)           rev. 05/06/2015

47. Driveshaft Bolts, Washers, Torque, tools, push-starting, etc.   rev. 08/22/2015

48. Ring & pinion gears, ratios, speedometers/odometers, (instrument pod repairs-
        link), instrument numeral colors, rpm, road speeds, numeral colors.  
        rev. 11/04/2015        
Also see article 39G

49. Oil Transfers....moving someplace other than where it belongs.  Water in the oil.
      Transmission and rear drive lubricants.  Installing the speedometer boot at the transmission.
      Rev:  04/30/2015

50A. Oiling system; oil consumption; thermostat; cooler; pressure bypass valve
          in filter canister area; remote & other oil filter kits, ETC.    rev. 09/23/2014

50B. MORE on the BMW Airhead Oiling System:  Sketches, descriptions; caps;
        breather, thermostats   rev. 11/10/2015

50C. Oil Pans; oil pan gaskets; oil pan threads, oil capacity; dipsticks;
          oil pickups, WINDAGE.   rev. 12/22/2015

50D. Oil Coolers, including installation; oil canisters (in brief)       02/05/2016

51A. Oil & filter change.  'Reading filters'. The "$2000 O-ring" ($3500 if you ruin
         your crankshaft).  Thermostat covers; LOTS more!...INCLUDING spin-on oil filter
         conversions. Filter Changes. Reading oil filter elements.      Rev.  05/17/2015

51B. Oil filters, canisters, ETC.   Information on changing your filter, types
          of oils for your airhead, oil additives; gasoline additives
         Rev.  05/01/2015           Suggested reading:  oilessay, 51C

51C.  Oil lubrication tech; oil recommendations, ZDDP/ZDTP; synthetics, etc. 
         Airheads, K-bikes, CARS, etc.     Rev. 05/01/2015

51D. Oil viscosities, viscosity indexes, engine oils, gear oils, suspension/fork
          fluids, shock absorber fluids, SAE, SUS, Cst, some ZDDP values.   GL4.  GL5.  BMW
          factory recommendations for viscosities.   Rev. 02/05/2016   

52. Pinging (Pinking); LUGGING; piston detonation.  Causes, effects, cures/fixes.
      Rev. 04/05/2014  

53. Brakes; everything about them.  Rebuilding ATE MC.   SS lines.
      Conversions/upgrades.     rev.  01/23/2016

54. Wheels, Tires, Axles, Hubs, Bearings, Steering Head, Forks, Seals/spacers,
       tires, dampers, ETC! 
       See #44 for wheel paint recommendations, etc. You will also find wheel coating
       information in the
chemicals article.

Section 1:  19" wheel recall      rev. 12/11/2015

Section 2A:  Wheel spoke lacing and alignment of hub/rim   rev. 04/06/2013   

 Section 2B:  The confusion over wheel spoke sizes and specifications

Section 3.  WHEELS and Wheel Spacers.  HINT.   rev. 08/14/2015
                        Also contains info on swapping various years/models of wheels.
                        (except Lester's, see Section 7 below). I suggest that you also read Section 5, below.

Section 4:  Wheel bearing preload & servicing wheel bearings. Some other
                           wheel information also, such as spokes, offset, and on the Speedi-Sleeve
                            rev. 01/31/2016
                           see Section 9, below

      Section 5:  Tire tests & recommendations.   Hydroplaning; tire width; top hat spacers; nitrogen.
                         REALtire testing!   Selecting tires (things you never knew).      rev. 01/21/2016
                          I suggest you read Section 3 above and Section 6 just below!
                          More tire information will also be found in Section 12, below; including a section
                          on vibration/thrumming, etc.

Section 6:  Tubeless versus tubes. Rim shapes. VERY detailed article     rev. 12/21/2015

      Section 7:  Lester wheels                 rev.  08/14/2015
Section 8A:  Steering dampers. Suspension. Shock absorbers & springs.
                           rev. 09/26/2014

Section 8B:  Ikon and Koni shock absorbers spring chart; a pdf file

      Section 9:  Airhead Wheel Bearing Clinic, BMWMOA National Rally,
                        July 2005; critique of BMW-ON magazine articles of 2004.
                        rev: 08/14/2015
54, Section 3 and Section 4 and Section 7, above

      Section 10A.  Front forks internals & alignment, stiction, braces, gaiters, cleaning &
                            lubricating (or replacing) steering head bearings, springs. In-depth
                            discussion of stiction & setting fork sag.  Hints regarding front fork
                            internals.  Modifications.  rev. 12-01-2015           

Section 10B.  Front Forks:  Oil filling amounts; pre-Airheads, Airheads,
K1, K75, K100, K1100

      Section 10C. 
Instability; weaving, wobbling, tank slappers; the REAL
                            information. rev. 05/23/2015

      Section 11.  Hyperlink to Anton's website wheel balancing article

      Section 12.  TIRE INSTALLATION/REPAIRS.  TIRE PRESSURES.  Studding.  Includes a section
on vibration/thrumming, mudflaps, etc.            rev. 12/24/2015  
see article 10C for much more on tire created problems

Section 13.  Brush guards (hand guards). BMW offers its own, and this part number is
                           for the black ones for the Airhead GS models, adaptable to many other
                           models:  71-60-2-315-870.  BMW also offers others in black and white and
                           many can be made to fit Airheads, and to K bikes.


55. Maintenance Schedule   rev. 01/02/2016  

56. Cold Weather Starting   rev. 02/05/2015  

57. Noise Silencing Pads For The Cylinder Fins   rev. 10/13/2012  

58. Importing a motorcycle; EPA, DOT & Customs    rev. 10/04/2012

59A. Transmission (and everything associated with them)     rev. 12/01/2015

        59A.  Additional information:
    New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and airheads crankshaft,
                  K bikes at the alternator drive:

59B. Emergency Shifting Tools for 5 speed transmissions     Rev. 08/28/2012 
        Transmission won't shift?




      Section 1:  Disassembly & assembly; heads, pistons, rings, cylinders, break-in;
                        Helicoils;  spigots (intake stubs); Timeserts; case threads for cylinder
rocker arms; rocker blocks.      01/25/2016
You may be interested in reading articles 40; 60-3, 60-4, 60-5, and 60-6

      Section 2:  Flywheel (& also Clutch Carrier) removal/replacement WARNING;
                        MAIN SEAL & O-ring. Oil pump & its cover and seal.  Rod bolts.
                        Re-installation of Flywheel, seal installation photos.
                        Factory bulletin on new style seals.   Front crank bearing carrier.
                        Grabby clutch, vibrations. Hard shifting.  Idle rpm change with
                        clutch lever use due to excessive end-play.         rev. 12/24/2015

                        New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output & Airheads
crankshaft...and K bikes at the alternator drive:


      Section 2A:  Lightened flywheel information          rev. 11/06/2014   

      Section 3:  CYLINDERS. Plates, shims, gaskets, sealants.  Measuring
                          cylinders w/o special micrometers.  Ridge removal. New rings

                          rev. 09/28/2015

      Section 4:  Pistons (including swapping heads-cylinders-pistons), rings, pins,
                         clips, keepers, d
ecarboning.   rev. 10/06/2014

      Section 5:  Valves, valve seats; leaded fuels; guides, valve springs, aftermarket
                         valves, noisy valves, bead-blasting,  ETC.   rev. 12/22/2015
You may be interested in reading article 40, 60-1, and 60-6

      Section 6:  Rocker arms, rocker arm shafts and bushes/bearings, valve gear,
                           pushrod tubes, cylinder heads.  Aligning the /5 valve gear.   
                           rev. 09/28/2014
You may be interested in reading articles 40, 60-1, and 60-5

      Section 7:  Camshafts, broken cam tips, cam sprockets, lifters (followers),
                            alternator & cam seals, crank nose bearing.  ZDDP.   Sports Cam
                            installations, duration, timing, etc. rev.  05/28/2015

      Section 8:  Replacing pushrod tubes & seals & collars;  Pushrods;
                            Valve cover studs; sealing cylinders.       rev. 09/28/2014

      Section 9:  Clutch, clutch arm, flywheel, carrier, bolts, upgrades, throw-out

                            bearings.  Push-rod, Cables, stuck clutch, clutch lever bushing.
                            Preventing broken transmission ears. Adjustments.  Rev.  02/04/2016
I recommend that you read article #43

Section 10.  Motor mounts/spacers:   There are 4 motor mount spacers on airheads.  The
                           two plain ones are identical & fit on the rear mount bolt (the longer bolt). 
                         There are two that have welded-on spring attachment places. ONE has TWO
                           such points, it goes on the left front & is where the side-stand & center-stand
                           springs attach.  The curved part faces DOWN, curves towards you.   The other
                           has only one attachment point, & that is for the center-stand is
                           fitted on the right front...the hole facing rearward.  There is a side-stand clip
                           that fits under the left rear nut, instead of the waverly lockwasher that is on
                           the other side.   NOTE that all spacers of any kind go between the engine and
                           the frame.
 Torque nuts to 55 footpounds.

61. Long Distance Touring.  +Dealing with Weather.   +SEATS.       rev. 11/20/2015;

62. Replacing a timing chain, guides, tensioner and sprockets on BMW Airhead motorcycles
       rev. 08/05/2015:
      Use this article with the cams article, Article 60, subsection 7

63. U-joint Phasing Photos, Paralever Driveshaft models and any driveshaft
       with Universal Joints.    rev. 09/30/2014

64. Reynolds:  Ride-off center-stands; luggage racks; tour rests, bag mounts,
       trailer hitches, etc.
       rev:   07/06/2015

65. TOOLS (very extensive information)  rev. 01/06/2016

66. Making a useful hydraulic jack, cheap    rev. 10/04/2012

67A. Engine, Frame, and other ID numbers.   How to read these
         numbers, etc., how to identify YOUR BIKE.    rev. 10/03/2015

67B. Model differences 1970-1995.  PLUS: Weights, capacities, problems.   rev. 01/10/2016

68A. Part numbers for hardware and MANY other parts.  Not just metal parts.
        Sources not in REFERENCES 78B.  Pozi & Phillips screws DISCUSSION.
        Locking methods discussion, ETC.  rev.   12/17/2015

68B. The ROUNDEL; sizes, part numbers; BMW COMPANY HISTORY (THE REAL STORY).
          rev. 02/08/2016

69. Parts Coding Symbols.  How to read the symbols on ETK, fiche, etc.
       rev.  10/12/2012

70. BMW Paint Codes 1970-?    Paint, sources, colors, codes, etc.
       rev. 06/03/2015

71A. Torque Specifications & problems; conversion factors; using torque
         wrenches. Calibration checks.  
rev. 08/16/2015

71B. Torque values for Airheads.       rev. 12/25/2015  

71C. Changing torque wrench range; adjustment correction using extensions
          rev. 08/16/2015

72. Formulas & conversion factors; including ignition timing versus piston movement     rev. 10/09/2012   

73. Chemicals & oils (but NOT oils for engine, gearbox, final drive).  Additives for oil and
Chassis & Spline Greases, Electrical Contact Treatments, Anti-seize, Loctite,
       Sealants, Waxes, plastic polishes, etc.    rev.  02/03/2016

74. Maintaining your leather items           rev. 10/08/2012   

75A. Luggage, Windshields, Locks & Keys (except fuel caps), Instruments,
         mirrors, etc.   rev.  11/01/2015
        SEE ARTICLE 1B for details and photos on gas cap problems!
        See #44 on how to repair cracked luggage, maintain plastic, drilling windshields, etc. 
        See #73 on products to use.
        See REFERENCES  "L" for luggage for more information.
        See K bike section

75B. Albert mirrors           rev. 12/25/2015

76. Those pesky easy to lose WEDGES that fit at the handlebar controls!
      How to make one.  This is a link to a sketch in .pdf.
The part numbers for these wedges are:   32-72-2-072-233; 32-72-1-232-929;
        and 32-72-1-242-626

77A. Modifications: Engine, Clutch, Suspension, Braking, Transmission, etc....for
        Performance, Reliability, Fuel Mileage; Street/Race. rev. 05/22/2015

77B. Krauser 4 valve cylinder heads and pistons    rev. 05/31/2015 

78. Useful URL's and sources for BMW motorcyclists; groups, forums, parts,
        people, websites, companies, services. Editing E-mail messages. Printing
        or sending special characters from your computer. Using foreign computers.
        rev. 11/17/2015

78A. REFERENCES:   ADDITIONAL RESOURCES & information not in 78 nor 80.
        Includes more URL's;  e-mail addresses; contacts & descriptions; where to
        get things, service, etc. 
Rev. dates are not listed for this article

78B. Lane Splitting/sharing in California (where it is quasi-legal)     rev. 02/07/2016

79. Side-stands; Center-stands.  Stock and Aftermarket. 
rev. 12/17/2015 

      Not just BMW.    rev.  05/03/2015
      Also...VERY IMPORTANT!>>> see article 78 and 78A. 

81. Lousy Fuel mileage; horsepower to attain high speeds; discussion of  HP,
      Torque, RAM-AIR, Cd, & LOTS MORE!           rev. 02/11/2015 

82A. INSURANCE: motorcycles & sidecar rigs; lots of things you probably did
         not think about, or know!  Negotiating with the insurance company.
         rev:  08/22/2014

82B. What To Do (and NOT do) right away if you've been in a motorcycle
         accident.  Advice from a
Motorcyclist's Lawyer!

83. Bob's 'sleeper' R75/5.   My radical supercharged R75/5   rev. 04/16/2013

84. See 7B about control and other cables and problems.

85. Foreign travel:  Using foreign computer keyboards:  see article 78

86. empty on purpose

You got this far, and STILL did not see what you wanted?


Oilhead motorcycle section:

O1. ABS brakes problems?   Here is a link to an article on the R1100 and R1150,
        how to reset the ABS:
        ALSO See K14A & K14B in the K-bike section, well below.

O2. Salvage yards, for oilhead parts, etc:   

O3. See article #30, above, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.      
How to go about repairing the ignition sensors:

O4.  R1100RT: LCD Temperature & Fuel Gauge Calibration; Fuel Sender Testing &
        Cleaning, troubleshooting   rev. 10/13/2012. 

O5. Links to a website with good stuff for Oilheads, such as on the ABS system;
      TDC locating mandrel, ignition timing box, etc.    First, the main link:

       This next link is to an article on the same website.   It is on the diagnosis and
repair of the Oilhead Hall Effect ignition sending unit.  
       You may want to refer to my own extensive article:  IGNITION

O6. Bleeding/servicing the integrated brakes system:

O7. Link to German website, with LOTS of Airhead (and some R1100 oilhead)
        electrical schematic diagrams.   Click on the Shaltplan, shown in red on that
        page, for your model: 

       Those are GERMAN schematics, not necessarily for your USA or other
        non-German-shipped country bike.  Use those schematics in conjunction
        with what you find on my website. There is a LOT of information besides
        schematics on the German website.

O8. Death Rattle:  Does your R850, R1100, or R1150 Oilhead, 1993-2004, make an
       uncomfortable-to-hear rattle upon startup, or on the road?   This article describes the fix, with
       photos.  The rear-view engine cut-away photo is a REAR-view of an Oilhead motor.
       Note that the left tensioner assembly is located on top of the cylinder, "facing" downward,
       in a position that allows oil to drain out of the tensioner sleeve during shutdown. The right
       side tensioner assembly faces upward from the bottom, it remains full of oil during
       shutdown.  This is why the tensioner that is typically repaired is the left side one.  You can
       get a complete KIT at a good price, with the CORRECT parts; that was the final improvement
       method (not the intermediate BMW attempt that used some NLA parts) from Tom Cutter at
       his BMW repair center:
      This converts to the final version using the tensioner sleeve & piston assembly, from
       the R1200S and RT (not R1200C).   After installing, the noise will cease, and you can forget
       about the damage that could be caused by a timing chain tensioner failure.  The conversion
       is to Hexhead parts.

NOTE:  if the upper left guide totally fails, the engine can be destroyed.  You want to fix things
                   well before that happens.  Replacement of that upper left guide, by BMW repair manual
                   information, means splitting the cases.  For those with death rattle noises, and cam
                   chain guide rail problems (and this information should be seen for information EVEN IF
                   you are only replacing the tensioner), here is a lengthy video, that explains a lot....and
          to possibly fix the engine if you have that rail damaged, without splitting the cases. 
                   I suggest you watch the entire video.


O9. Hyperlink to a forum-type website.  Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead, Camhead, K.

O10. Hyperlink to an article on what belts were used, which to use, how to adjust
         them, & at what interval replace them, etc.

O11. Oilhead HINTS     rev.  10/12/2012

O12. Replacing an oil level sight glass rev. 10/04/2014

O13. Tool to lock flywheel and TDC locator:

O14. There is a new-style Teflon oil seal being used on ALL BMW motorcycles.
         I expect it will be used at more places for replacement purposes, over the
        this website:

O15. Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.  Rev. 12/20/2015

O16. Control Cables problems.    (Same as article 7B, Airheads section)

O17. empty on purpose

For information on electrics in general, see article 14A.
For batteries see the new battery article, #35.

Owner's manuals for R1200GS; K1200; K1300 series; F650GS;F800 series; S1000 series, etc.:
You may have to look for the owners booklets, BMW keeps changing the location on that website.
The above link is actually MUCH longer when you click on it. 
Allow time for it to load up fully. 
When you see SERVICE at the top, click on it.  Allow to load, then click on left side for Riders Manuals.

All the technical information on this site is:  

If you want to donate to help maintain this site: DONATING
+ information on how I operate this website!
This site has Google-sponsored advertisements on every page.  Clicking & looking
at the advertisements & then clicking on something inside the advertisement is the
PRIMARY way this site is supported.  Thanks for looking at them!

CLASSIC K-bike motorcycle section:
CLASSIC K-BIKES ARE K MODELS K1, K75, K100, K1100, and MAYBE the K1200

NOTE:  Snowbum does not work on, nor have knowledge about these bikes: 
             F  series; K 1200; S1000R; HPx; K1300; K1600 series. For those, consult others.
For those K series you might be interested in the following website:

        that appears to be a duplicate of  
Snowbum is active here
Forum style.  Classic K bikes.   Active, lots of opinions, watch for
awhile to sort out who knows, who guesses, etc. 

Snowbum isn't on this forum. 
The so-called BIG LIST.  Has a section on tech. Lots of K bike stuff. 
Snowbum participates occasionally.  
Main page is seldom changed, that is, hardly ever anything added to it.  
The FORUMS are active.  
K1100LT, K1100RS repair manual,2252.0.htm  Factory K bike service manuals.
Scan down here.  Classic K bikes model history, K1, K75, K100, K1100.
There are some things missing, and some that need embellishment, etc.  
                             There were changes in the rod lengths and pistons, the radiator got more
fins, lots of little things also.  But, Anton's list is a good one.

K1. Starter sprag clutch problems in classic K bikes     rev.  04/21/2013  

K2. Hints, advice, parts, BMU---Bulb Monitoring Unit, etc.     rev.  11/01/2014
Information on converting rear, or front, or both, turn signals, to have an
       added running lamp function:   see article 34.

K3A. A version of the K100 schematic:
  K100 Schematic Diagram, pdf format

K3B. K100LT, entire schematic diagram of whole bike.   This is a pdf, made
         directly from BMW's own information.  It is for the UK ABS version.
         In general, covers the 1987-1989 era, probably a bit more. 

K3C. This is the LEGEND for the above, 3B, schematic diagram:

K3D.  Heated Grips. This is a link to a pdf.

          A simple diagram, except for exact colors/fuses/wiring, for the K bikes.

K4. Brake squealing, any model, and very especially the K75?...see article 53 which
      DOES include information for K75, & all classic K bikes, for that matter.
      That article also has a lot of information on bleeding the brakes!

K5. Salvage yard, for parts, etc.:  (973)-775-3495.
      Some other salvage yards are listed in my references article (article 78-B).
      You can also try:

K6. See article #30 ABOVE, about the ignition Hall effect sensors.

K7. U-joint Phasing photos, any U-joint driveshaft system, including Paralever Driveshaft
       models rev. 09/30/2014

K8. K bike instrument pod.  Calibrating speedometer. Clock modification
for 12 hour clock indication. Radio codes.    rev. 03/13/2015

K9. K bike fork oil requirements     rev. 12/31/2015 

K10. Fitting handguards/brushguards to a K1100LT  (and earlier models)
         rev.   10/07/2012 

K11A. Troubleshooting the LE-Jetronic classic K bikes (2 valve K75, 2 valve K100). 
        Register at:
        HUGE amount of technical information, and even a step-by-step article, but
        you have to really search the site to find this stuff (especially by VOGEL).
 page/K100 troubleshooting Starting.pdf

              NOTE:  This above link version is MUCH MORE COMPLETE, than the one below!
         Here is another source for much of the above article, but some charts & information
         are not, strangely, in this version:
         For both, Vogel's article is entitled:  "EFI/Electronic ignition K100 2V troubleshooting"

K11B. Troubleshooting the K1100, or, any early K with the Motronic system:

K12. Front forks oil changing:  See #9, just above.  ALSO see article in

Section 54, sub- section 10B.  Also see 10A for fork alignment.

K13. Changing Coolant on a Classic K bike, how-to.  Discussion about various coolants.
        Heat on your legs.  H
eat insulation under the tank, etc.    rev. 01/24/2016  
        ALSO contains notes on why the coolant job could be effected by updating
        of early K bikes from 400 watt to 700 watt alternators, ETC.

K14A. If you need to have a fuel injection computer or ABS computer brain repaired:
          Lots of good testing advice here too!

Will get you the main page, lots of
technical information there!

See above links, then Contact Tosi at: 
Highly recommended by several people.

Here is a place in the Netherlands that does all sorts of modules/computer
          brains, etc.:

          BBA Re-manufacturing; 300 Myles Standish Blvd.; Tauntonk MA 02780
           (866) 573-2740;  (508)-822-4490
           I have TWO reports that do NOT recommend these folks, and NONE
           that DO recommend.

K14B. If you are having ABS codes problems, before you jump to conclusions,
           remove both ABS relays, clean contacts and clean the relay connection
spades too, and add contact cleaner to them.  This is also good advice
for the ABS main computer plug connections. Here are a couple of
           articles to look at:

Scan down for the ABS articles
K15. Ignition problems:  lots here on the module and Hall devices
; and, how
        to set ignition timing
K16. Adjusting the steering head bearings on a K75, K100, K1100:

K17. Brake light switch problems....see article well above, #37B.  If you have a
        1985 K bike, and a stiff throttle, also read that article 37B...yes, a brakes
         switch article!   Info is well down the article.

K18. Hyperlink to a forum-type website. Mostly on Oilheads, but some Hexhead, Camhead, K.

K19. Locks, gas caps, KEYS, etc....... I have an article, #1B and #75A, WAY above,
         that covers all of these things in depth.

K20. See Airhead section article #30 regarding the ignition circuitry, lots of useful
         information on the Hall element, etc. The following article, while for a R1100RT
         oilhead, is useful for K bike owners; it is illustrated & is about replacing the
         Hall sensors for a R1100RT repair, & is SIMILAR for a K bike:

         NOTE:  If your Classic K-bike is having irregular ignition problems, and you
                      can't find anything wrong with the ignition, remove the valve cover,
                      and check to be sure that the cover is grounded to the engine by means
                      of a coil spring that is mounted to a cam bearing mount. 

K21. Doing a rear main seal job is involved.   Here is a video of the procedure to
        R/R the main seal on a Classic K bike.  Useful for anyone wanting to know
         what/how in taking apart the bike....even if not doing a rear main seal job.

In GERMAN for sound. The mechanical support for the bike is flimsy in my

opinion.  They found one of the headers case you wonder about
         the exhaust pipe being 'shown'.

K22. Information for Classic K bikes, NOT just the K100.
        Many Service Bulletins here too: 

K23. A lot of K bike information.   Has wiring diagrams and a lot of other information.
In German, but very useful!  Covers all the Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200).
 Lots more than that.  Wiring diagrams are under Shaltplän.  Use Google translator.

K24. How to replace an oil level sight glass    rev. 10/04/2014

K25A. Service Information Bulletin SI-2630R:  failure to use all fuel in the fuel tank,
          whining noise from the fuel pump.   This is a link to a PDF file on this website.
          The sketches are not very clear, so look at them with a critical eye!
           If you can furnish a really nice clear copy of that bulletin, let me know.

K25B. Replacing a fuel pump:  K1, K75, K100, K1100
    rev. 10/04/2014

K26. Engine oil, & lubrication in GREAT DEPTH:  see article 51-C

K27. Worn rear drive splines?  Bad U-joint?  Upgrade?
I suggest you look at all of the videos!

         Doing a K75 rear drive input spline and driveshaft and swing arm lubrication?
         This is a link to a how-to video, it's in German, but you will understand it.  
         Note that normally one does not pull the swing arm, in this video I suspect it
          was done to replace the boot, and check the swing arm bearings.


         Two videos on K75 and K100 rear drive spline servicing, Bruno's
           driveshaft and rear spline rebuilding, etc. 


K28. New style seal used on R100 GS transmission output and airheads
         crankshaft...and K bikes at the alternator drive:

K29. Link to a 6 part video series on how to disassemble and reassemble a
        Classic K-bike, to do an input spline service.  Includes a lot of service

         and commentary on things the servicer found on this bike along the way.
Lots of good hints.    Very complete, including the swearing.

K30. Control cables problems  (same as Airheads 7B)

K31. Re-keying locks, especially fuel tank lock; problems with the cap; and other details.

        Also:  see my article 1B and 75A, well above here, in the Airhead section of MY site,
          which have EXTENSIVE information.

K32. FUEL CAP on K bikes (and other bikes too). This is a video.   It covers R/R cap
         internals.  No information on keying locks. 
NOTE:   The "kit" in the video,
         16-11-9-062-461R was sourced from Bob's BMW.   The "R" means Bob's is
         selling a repair kit.  Be sure to get gasket 16-11-1-453-690.   Also see my article 75A.

K33. Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc.

K34.  This is a link to a sketch of the clutch disc alignment tool.  It was posted 26 January, 2007, in
          Kbmw Yahoo Groups, and I have cleaned it up and posted it here for you.


NOTE!....Many of my Airhead articles are informative for K bike and Oilhead owners; and some,
such as the brakes article, are informative for all motorcycles.  Other examples are my
articles 78 and 78A.  Many other examples of useful articles are in the Airheads sections. 
Scattered in this long list of Technical Articles you are reading are stated references to
Airheads articles that also apply to Classic K bikes, but I have probably missed a few.
I suggest you look at the entire list of articles, and see what might apply to your Classic K bike.
For information on electrics in general, see article 14A.
For batteries see the new battery article, number 35.
Both of these are in the Airheads section, quite far above.

I have a page that has some motorcycle (yes, some K bike stuff too) and personal
stuff for sale (or TRADE!...even FREE!):  SALE

Sidecar specific section:

When I ride my motorcycle, it makes me happy.
When I drive my sidecar rig, it makes everyone happy who sees me....
....and many want to chat with me.

(This section begins with my present sidecar rig. The technical items follows this)

Our present Sidecar rig: GT2.htm

Previously Al Olme's sidecar rig.  Shipped to me from Minnesota by HaulBikes
(also known as Daily Direct); whose service is highly recommended by me &
many others, including dealerships.  I removed the Police-type saddle & Authorities
radio trunk prior to Penny & my 2008 trip across the USA, installing the stock seat
& large standard trunk. The Police/Authorities items have been sold.  I  have City-cases,
as well as Tour-bags & use whichever is appropriate, even in combination sometimes.
Specifications below are in brief, as I have done a LOT of modifications.

Tug wheels:  4.5 x 14" EZS.
Tug tire, REAR:  175/70-R14 rear (back to stock P165/70R14 possibly in the future)
Tug Tire, FRONT:   165/70-R14 front (to POSSIBLY be 175 in future, or, remain same)
***I am experimenting with tire sizes on the tug***

Sidecar wheel:  #300, 15" EML with 135R15 tire (or possibly 135/80-R15 in the future)
Tire pressures:  Still experimenting with pressures on all 3 tires.

Front fork:  EZS Leading Link, with special fender to accommodate the tire size.
Front shocks: Koni 7610-1282 shocks (modified by me).
Brembo twin spot calipers on front wheel of tug, dual front floating discs and floating
    calipers, with torque arms.
ABS system removed.
Single disc rear brake uses Brembo two-piston 38 mm P108 caliper.
Rear master cylinder 16 mm Magura.
Brembo F05 sidecar disc brake plumbed to the tug's rear braking system.
Front wheel offset to right by 1-3/8".  Sidecar wheel lead 13-1/4". Toe-in 3/8". 
The need for a steering dampener, hydraulic, my modifications, is quite minimal. 
R1100S modified hand-guards.
Hotel-quality rugs in chair and chair trunk. 
Multiple types of electrical outlets in chair. 
Way over-designed/over-built TOP, designed/made HERE...sheesh what a job!
See #9 below.

Some specifications, including empty and loaded weights & dimensions; plus a lot
of SERVICE information for the EML sidecar, will be found on this website, HERE:

EML and EZS sidecars, technical repair information








The SKUNK flag stands for Sidecars Up Nort Klub;
  Up Nort stands for anyplace Up North of someplace.

Snowbum is active (and a moderator) on these sidecar LISTS:
 (any and all sidecars)  (EML sidecars)


SC1A. The good points, the bad points, literature and information: an overview of
            sidecaring basics    
rev: 03/28/2014

SC1B. List of Sidecar groups on the Internet                rev: 10/14/2012  

SC1C. Hyperlink for the Evergreen Council group training schedule for Basic &
           Advanced training:

SC1D. Hyperlink to a website that has a lot of photos, videos, links, etc., about
            sidecar traveling, much is out of the USA, some videos, etc., are in English,
            but the whole site is fun to look through, and you could use Google translate:


There is a tremendous amount of information on various types of sidecar rigs
            on the Internet.  One that is seldom known about is this one:

This next link has a lot of sidecar information.  Few seem to know of this website:

SC1E. German website, lots of interesting things....if you do not read German, put
           the URL into Google Translations.


***NOTE!   If you use the Google CHROME browser, it has settings that can give you
                  automatic translating for any website you visit.

SC1F. Source for Vintage sidecar items, numerous manufacturer's items here.

SC1G.  Source for fuel tanks, valves, caps, gauge, etc:

SC2. Sidecar Tech.  Where to get information.  Manuals, mechanicals, photos,
         licensing, modifications, subframes, mounts, brakes, alignment details/photos of
         R100RT-Ural rig mounts, etc.              rev. 10/25/2015
  Has a LOT of sidecar technical information that is FREE.  
         Be sure to download, or at least read, the three article/books on that site furnished
         to the USCA by the late Dr. Hal Kendall:  How to drive a sidecar rig, ETC.  Click at
         the top at Links and Books, then click on Books and Manuals.  VERY HIGHLY
 Knowledge of one book translated from an in-German book
         is not only recommended, but is NECESSARY to properly use SC3, below.

SC3. Sidecar resources: INCLUDING  setting up sidecars, how to drive one,
         resources f
or handicapped sidecar & trikes, LOTS MORE includes
         Speedometer  re-calibrator, etc.    rev:   02/22/2015
    ALSO see SC2

SC4. There is a BRAKES section on this website, and it has additional information on
         the installation of brakes of various types for sidecars. This is in addition to
         information in various SCx articles here.

SC5. Sidecar and sidecarist humor  ...and some seriousness    rev: 10/31/2015

SC6. Flying the chair; steering reversion; countersteering      rev:  11/08/2014

SC7. Miscl.  Sidecar Tech, including FUEL TANKS, brakes, TIRES, etc.
         rev: 10/25/2015

SC8. EML sidecars:  old brochure, plus LOTS of technical information on weight,
         dimensions, suspension & brakes overhaul; lamps, GT2; & other EML models,
         tires, etc.  SOME EZS information too.  
Allow time to load!   rev. 12/07/2015

SC9. EML sidecar tops; photos; description of various types of tops; AND my own
         custom top      rev. 09/27/2012
         Also see SC8, just above

SC10. LEANER rigs. FLEXIT leaner sidecar; history, photos, etc.  Other leaners;
           conventional rigs also....hyperlinks, etc.  rev.  10/13/2014 

SC11. EZS_steering_damper; including overhaul.  Rev. 10/24/2015
          NOTE:  See both articles 54-8A  and SC2 for steering dampens and shock
                       absorber units that cover sidecar usages in depth!
SC12. My first "street" sidecar, a R100RT-Ural sidecar rig, was sold April 2006.
           Information & photos on that rig, including the subframes and a lot of other
           technical items.   rev. 10/13/2012

SC13. empty on purpose

SC14. If you are adding lamps, or changing lamps on a K-bike, etc.  K-hints

          MORE on Adding running lamp function to turn signals, etc. :

SC15. Lousy fuel mileage:   see article 81

SC16. My present sidecar rig, see at the beginning of this sidecar section.
          Also see:
  Our present Sidecar rig: K1100LT-EML GT2

My K1100LT has handguards.  See K bike section article 10 or click this line

NOTE:  see article 82, well above; about insurance!


The technical information on this site is ** PLEASE DESCRIBE THIS IMAGE **

If you want to donate to help defray costs, click here: DONATING
That page also has history and information on how (and why)
I run this website, without my being obligated to anyone!

Motorcycle & personal items WANTED/SELL or TRADE/BARTER: SALE
There is also some FREEEEE stuff there!

You got this far, and STILL did not see what you wanted?
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