Vintage BMW Motorcycle Owners




Knowledge Base




Snowbum's BMW Motorcycle Repair & Information Website

The above ads are Google-sponsored. 
Most articles in this website have them. 
They are never anyplace but at the top.
If you find them elsewhere's, you are not
on MY correct page.
Clicking on ads helps support this website.
Clicking on something inside the advertisements helps more.
>>>and; thanks also, for the donations!

Donating to help support this website, testing of BMW items, etc.?  What happens to your donation?
What about the "income" I get from your clicks and donations?
How this website began & how it is run....and....what about the future of this website?

Copyright 2023, R. Fleischer

This website was designed, written, & is still maintained me, Snowbum, also known as Robert (Bob) Fleischer.  I began the website in 1998, writing the HTML code manually, and one of the goals was to keep the code and functions simple.     You DON'T have to try to find things in drop-down boxes, because there are none.  Nothing is obscurely hidden.  I have always suggested users play with the site for an hour & learn the basic layout ...including how to use the Search Engine BUILT INTO THE SITE.  Begin your familiarization with a top to bottom look-see of the HomePage (link is at the end, after you finish reading about the site, here).   After looking at the HomePage,  then go through the Technical Articles List article from top to bottom, perhaps fairly quickly ....just to see what is there and how it is arranged.  The website is an antique now, as far as layout, fancy stuff, old code, etc.  It is going to stay that way while I am alive and can still work on it.  I often update both code and content of articles.  After my death, the website will continue to be hosted by the Vintage BMW Club, which will then have the additional responsibility of keeping it reasonably current.   They may modify any portion of my website, to more properly fit what the Vintage Club is all about.  In actuality, I expect them to do little except to eliminate all of the Google-based advertising; and, perhaps, all or a goodly portion of my personal stuff.

Much further down is a section that tells you a lot more about the history, etc., of this site.

The only money I get through this site is from those who click on Google advertising; and, an occasional sale off my page ...and ...from the occasional direct donation which usually comes to me via PayPal.  Over all the many years of this website, I personally added money for such as equipment, costs, etc., including for purchase and testing of literally hundreds of items.  In general, after items were purchased, tested, and written-up, these items were then sold at a substantial discount, and that money then went into the PayPal or other 'banking' function, to be re-used, over and over! 

As the site grew larger and larger, the hosting & other fees/costs, including expenses for higher levels of website security, and the need for better equipment, were all getting more and more expensive, and I did not have the control and permanence I wanted for the future. I needed to upgrade some things.    During that time I looked into all expenses.  I especially wanted to increase the site value to YOU, even while seriously reining-in the immediate costs and considerations for the site ....for even after I died.   I was successful, and managed to eliminate or reduce many costs.  I thought I could solicit funds, perhaps with an appeal for such, once a year; but, I never did anything, myself, about that.  Such solicitation.   That was initiated, unbeknown to me, by folks who thought the site worthy, but I asked that, after the first time, that it not be repeated (originally planned for every June)....>>>I did not want to be thought of as 'asking for funds'.    By that time, I had disassociated my site from the original host, Earthlink; and I then obtained my own domain name via a contract, etc., with GoDaddy, and, thus had almost total control over my website.  

In 2020 I received an offer that I negotiated a bit on and it was accepted, and a big change was made hosting by the Vintage BMW Club.      I then did some upgrading where seriously needed. From that time forward,  any rare equipment needs ...and costs for testing of some items for you all, ETC .... are primarily being paid-for by those website users who click on the Google ads at the top of the hundreds of website pages; ....and  ordinary donations to my PayPal account.  Some of these donations have been very generous.  Irregularly, as required, I pay for certain things, and will continue to do so.     

Restating some earlier information:   After I die, or can't keep up the website for health or other reasons, the Vintage Club will 'own' my website.  The Club may decide to remove all top-of-page advertising (I've never had it anyplace else on any page).  The Club may edit out any or all of my personal things (I've already started very slowly doing that).  Although I obviously can not edit articles after my death, it is my hope that solid permanently good information will always be in this website for you, and I have tried to write/edit/etc., the articles in such a manner.  The Vintage Club already incorporates my website into their vast and growing hostings.   Unlike most other Internet websites, and greatly simplified in this explanation, the Vintage Club controls, via the Club's own webmaster, the Server that my site, and the Club's primary site, is located on.    In essence, my website, and that Club's all-encompassing website that contains my website, as well as other's pertinent to BMW motorcycles, is in control of its own Server.

Regarding the Google advertisements:
  I can't directly control Google advertisements, although I can limit certain types of ads.  The income I get from you clicking on advertisements and clicking on something inside an advertisement (you need not purchase anything), both of which are needed to send me a few pennies, is quite low ...BUT APPRECIATED! ...those pennies add up!

Direct donations via PayPal, whether the occasional $5 to the rare $100, provide much more than advertising 'clicks'; ... BUT...ALL is appreciated!

What specifically happens to donations or to the Google advertising income?   Here's a bit more of the details.
Donations and Google's top of the page ads income, was always applied towards my costs.  Some some funds went towards things such as purchasing motorcycle items, usually at Wholesale, often electrical, for testing.  Those items were primarily for Airheads/BMW riders.   After testing, those items were re-sold by me at a discounted price (and the money went back into my Donations Fund).   These items were usually listed for sale at   Typically, I used the same money several times, so the process was quite  efficient.   I tried to use the donations and clicks money carefully & only for the benefit of BMW riders.

By late 2018, I began reducing the amount of testing since costs had gone up considerably, my income had decreased, and I was less willing to finance the site from my own pocket as much as I did previously. I no longer owned a busy BMW custom shop to supply profits money for such things.   The following year, mostly due to advancing age problems, I reduced the vigorous tires, brakes and suspension parts testing I used to do.  I arranged for others to do some types of testing.  I continued to do some testing, often for electrics items.  Some of the loss of income from clicks and donations is because I DO promote other folks' websites, if they have information that is useful.   I don't do repair videos (so far), which have become a increased method of transferring practical knowledge ....and I often recommend good ones, which also reduces my own website use (still,... I get ~ 15000 monthly clicks/accesses) ....but very few of these inquirers send donations ...nor do they click on ads.   Certain things are not being done anymore, at least not by me personally....such as serious tire testing.  I am also not testing the latest and greatest (so-to-speak) alternator, ignition, gloves, jackets, etc. 

What about a situation in which a tested item is kept and not resold? This is rare; but, when it does happen I put my own money into the same website account.  Additionally, once in awhile something is purchased, tested, the item fails and has to be discarded; or, is returned to the manufacturer, usually with information I provide to help them improve their product.  If they replace the product with a new good item, I may test it, sell it, again putting the money into the donations fund account.   All donations, advertising income, parts sales, etc., generally goes into that special PayPal account, which I use for the purposes mentioned.  If used for other things, I donate back.  I continue to donate personal upkeep funds to that account when necessary.  

The time is way past when my old computer equipment, and programs, should be replaced.  My Windows 7 PRO program is obsolete now, but, I have many security software items, so, I still use that Operating System. Security is primary, but function is also important.  Note that I fully control the software that I use to upload and download my work.    I well-know that my equipment will not last forever, and, already, by 2023, Google is no longer furnishing some types of updates...and the operating system as well as certain programs will eventually become so obsolete as to start becoming serious impediments for the website.  I am already seeing this in my use of pdf's for such as schematics and sketches, and a few other places.  For the time being I will continue to use updated older programs and equipment as best I can, to keep costs low, yet maintain reasonable function.  I think things will remain reasonably OK until perhaps 2025, at which time I may well update most everything...OR...if my health begins to fail much more, to ask the webmaster for the Vintage BMW Club to help me in updating things in a more wholesale manner; and then turn over the website fully to them. 

I try to not to have this website be commercial.  I have one article only, dealing with selling personal items and that same article is where I may list the selling of "tested" items (I have other venues where I can also sell tested items).

The advertising has ALWAYS & ONLY been at the TOP of my pages.  I have not allowed Google to move advertising placement.  If you see advertisements elsewhere on this site, it is my or your malware problem ...please inform me what pages you saw it on, and please let me know what and where you clicked to even get to that page...real details, etc. ...because I want to make sure the problem is not coming from my site, & if it is I want to fix it.  DO NOT access my website from 3rd parties sites! can get their spamming advertisements...or worse!  Always use only the following link for access to the homepage; or any  page.  BE SURE your URL bar in your browser, upon initial access, has only this: .   I suggest you be extra safe, and manually type in that link, and then save the link in your browser as a Favorite or whatever word, such as Bookmark, that your browser uses for such.

Your contribution/donation is much appreciated ....whether by direct donation or advertising clicks (or, comments).

I hope the website continues to be of considerable help to you!   If you have any comments, requests, etc., regarding the website, articles, etc, feel free to contact me. Folks like you that use the website have been responsible for suggesting topics & article expansions over the years.  Some have notified me of typographical and other errors; and, some have let me know if something is confusing, or needs to be expanded....ETC.     ESPECIALLY ...If you see something on this website that is wrong or confusing, etc, please contact me!  

BUT, PLEASE, DO NOT CONTACT ME DIRECTLY ABOUT  YOUR TECHNICAL PROBLEMS.  PLEASE direct your personal technical inquiries to the Airheads List, where questions and answers benefit more than just you. 

Direct donations and clicking on advertisements:

1.  As I noted, clicking on various Google advertisements; and, then clicking on something inside the advertisements, produces a small income, yes, it is a few pennies each time, but they add up.   Clicking does not cost you anything but a few moments of your time, and such clicking is the primary way this website was supported, although Direct Donations via PayPal are vastly more efficient, and I have received donations over the years from $5 to $200, equivalent to many thousands of clicks ....but ALL clicks and ALL donations are appreciated.

2.  You can copy my E-mail address from e-mailimage,  and then go to and make a donation.    If unfamiliar with PayPal, you need to know that PayPal uses E-addresses as the actual identification of an account.  PLEASE be sure you spell my account E address properly.  It is best to send the funds as a 'gift', or 'family', or, whatever PayPal calls the category now.....which avoids me paying PayPal a percentage fee.  If you cannot figure out how to do that, don't worry about it, I won't, and don't.

3.  You could snail mail me a check.   That is not a preferred method, but you may not have a PayPal account AND not wish to use PayPal (which will accept credit cards, if you do not have an account).
Make the check out to:   R. Fleischer and mail to:

R. Fleischer
1903 Teal Drive
Carson City, NV

I prefer to send thank-you's via E-mail, sometimes they are quite personalized please include a LEGIBLE note inside any snail-mailing, with your E-mail address.  If you do not furnish an legible E-mail address, my thanks will be coming via snail mail, providing your envelope containing your check, has a return address that I can actually read.  NOTE that PayPal now makes it difficult for me to get YOUR e-mail address when it sends me acknowledgement of a donation.  I no longer bother trying, so I send thanks, for PayPal system donations, through the PayPal response system, to you.  That, unfortunately, removes my ability to add cartoons, long comments, etc.

DO introduce yourself should we be at the same event, etc.

I DO NOT sell nor pass out E-addresses! 
I DO NOT keep track of who has donated! (and, am unlikely to remember)
I DO NOT spam folks!
I DO NOT say anything publicly, or on any forum of any kind, about your donation!
I HAVE NOT placed cookies in my website coding!
I HAVE NOT placed tracking beacons in my website coding!
I HAVE NOT placed any advertising anyplace on my website EXCEPT the Google ads at the TOP of pages.

Those are absolute hard policies.

Other stuff:

I debated with myself ...for years ... before putting any advertising on this website.  I did not want this website to be 'commercial'.   I wanted no conflicts of interest.  I eventually did put Google advertising on this website ....but only at the top of any article; and, in such as way that you can not mistake it as anything but advertising from companies contracting with Google.   I have placed a banner for the Vintage BMW Club at the top, but the Google advertising is just below, and easily recognizable.  If you see advertising at sides or bottom of articles, you have very likely clicked on the wrong places on the internet to get to my site, and I recommend you access my site ONLY via my site's address.  A bit more of information about this sort of thing is in the next paragraph.

I have never ever steered you to any company or person where I might gain personally or financially (there may be mention of my electronics repairs business).  I will never ever accept promotional fees, special arrangements, cross-website advertising, etc., from individuals nor companies, in return for endorsing them.  These are also absolute policies.    If you ever click on my site on the internet and get advertising that is not as I have said, then be sure you have not used a web-based Search Engine that is not my own; and, please report to me.  If someone says that I recommended someone or some company or individual, it may or may not be true.  Ask for the citation, and if you have a disagreement, please let me know.  I have a for-sale or trade article That is the only place in this entire website where I have something to directly sell (or, trade, or barter, or give away free).  There may be items on that page near its bottom that I may be looking for.  I have a link to my electronics business, which helps people who need electronic repairs to find my business.  I no longer have a business that does BMW repairs. 

Due to how search engines operate (Bing, Google, DuckDuck, or whatever you use), I would appreciate ...if you have a website ...if you would put a link to my website on your website.  Putting links on Forums, lists, etc., can be helpful to me and others.  I would prefer that link to be exactly this   The purpose of using that particular link, and not a link to my Technical Articles List, is to be sure the information from MY linked Technical Articles List is the latest edited version; and, you should know that you will be able to see some articles, etc., only from HomePage.  Whether or not you put my website address as a link on your site, I will continue to recommend your site, or pertinent article, if I think it is good information, especially if it covers something I do not, or adds to my coverage.

This website is set up like a tree with branches, the top of the tree being the HomePage.  The Technical Articles Index Page is one branch below the HomePage.  It is BEST for you to access my site by going directly to my homepage, then scanning down to the hyperlink I provide, to get to the Technical Articles list.  That way you get the very latest updates, and, also get to click, if you wish, on some articles that are NOT in my Technical Articles List.   Many have no idea those articles exist!

I made some changes in coding how links work in my website, to make them more useful to you.  In a high percentage of instances, clicking on a link inside this website that points towards any other of my own pages, will cause your browser to go to the internet to fetch that page, ...& not go directly to inside my site. Saying this differently, I have set the coding for many links in this website so that when you click on a link to something that is in my website, that opens a NEW 'tab' page in your browser.  That makes it easy for you to switch back and forth, hopefully this is helpful to you, for comparison and other purposes.  Safety/security is not affected.  IF YOU FIND A PHOTO OR SKETCH, ETC., MISSING FROM INSIDE AN ARTICLE, E-MAIL THE INFORMATION, SO I CAN FIX IT.

This site is coded to try to ensure that your device (Smart Phone? Desktop PC? Tablet?) is likely to be better-formatted and thus display more usably for you.   Another way of saying this is that my site is, more or less, "Friendly" for many devices.  The coding I added is not perfect, but it is simple and for the most part, functional.

There is a problem that can not be 100% dealt with, even using 'no-caching code'.  This problem is common to most websites on the Internet.   Your browser MAY cache (save) an OLD page you looked at, and that's what you MIGHT see when going to it. This is particularly onerous when using Google Chrome which does major caching.  You can usually fix this in Microsoft Windows, each time, by pressing Ctrl, holding it, and pressing button key F5.  It usually also works without pressing Ctrl, and only pressing F5.    Usually, either will cause a fresh loading of my page and you will then usually get the latest page version.  It does not work for all browsers the same way, but do try it.  For a MAC computer, use Command  and R, or Apple and R.

Another method (usually reliable):
Refreshing in all common browsers such as Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Safari, and others (?), can also be done by clicking on the circular arrow someplace near the top of the page, usually to the left of the internet address (URL).

Once in awhile computers get confused, and you cannot refresh and empty the cache properly. For whatever reason, Google's Chrome browser has often been the worst at this; probably because Chrome puts an enormous cache in your computer, 'thanks' to Google.  I have to clean my own cache, entirely, every few weeks ...ask me about that if you want to know how to do it best, or, perhaps you can just download Ccleaner.   Using something like Ccleaner, available for internet download as a free program directly from the maker, Piriform, will/can fix things. It can also be done, not as perfectly, but adequately, by using Google's history deletion function, usually found in SETTINGS when you have the Google Chrome browser on screen.  All browsers have some way to delete histories.

HISTORY of this website:
This website was first placed on the Internet/www early in 1999.  I was in my sixties.  At that time I did 100% of the website design & content by manual (YIKE'S!) coding in HTML.  There were hardly any decent pre-packaged websites available back then, & I did not use any, never have and still do not. I DO NOT LIKE THEM.  I originally designed this website to be simple, relatively easy to maintain, "usable" on any browser, and, hopefully usable on any screen size, although bigger is always better, eh?  My ISP was, eventually purchased by Earthlink.  I had a 'free' 10Mb of space.  Problems came soon enough with that low amount of space, and limits of my control.  I then purchased independent ISP space & service.  I also purchased my own domain name.   The website has been greatly expanded over the years, presently it is well-over 100 Mb, which is a huge amount of content.

The primary browsers in 1999 were Internet Explorer & Netscape Navigator.  Windows 95, 98, and NT2000 were still in wide use.  Windows XP did not appear until at the end of 2001.  I won't hardly mention the abominable Windows ME, followed by the half-ass Windows Vista.  Today, there are a modest amount of XP, Vista, etc., machines still in operation.  We have many folks who still use Windows 7 and 8.  I use Windows 7PRO; which is outdated.  I do have a later version of Windows in my laptop computer, so I can do comparisons.  Just about everything has changed since the early days.  Browsers still, unfortunately, vary some on how they display things to you, compared to what I might see on my 24" monitor screen; or, my smaller laptop screen.  I do not have an Apple or Mac computer.   I have resisted such a purchase, since I have had no complaints about bad things happening with my website as displayed/operational, on any Apples, Mac's, etc.

My site is NOT perfect, and it is primarily checked by me for its appearance and functionability on Chrome and Firefox.  Underlining & positioning of underlining is one of the variables, as are box & tables including their outline colors, displayed colors (especially on box edges), layout, font sizes, text wrapped around images, etc.  Somewhat after I first began this site I saw that other websites were overly using drop-down boxes, and there were problems seeing what was in them without clicking or hovering over them.  I personally like things out and in the open (my wife, Penny, will attest to our messy kitchen table due to my paperwork).  Many of the boxes did not display reasonably the same, depending on one's Browser.  I decided to TOTALLY AVOID using drop down boxes and to avoid having or requiring mouse pointer hovering.  I also have eliminated almost all dynamics, except two on the HomePage.   Over the years I have added a lot of photographs and sketches, as I know they are very helpful to many of you.  I also have incorporated tables for additional clarity.  Videos/sound by me are not yet utilized.

One of the things I strongly regret was that I did not, early-on, fully incorporate CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) (also sometimes called THEMES).   Even now, this type of coding is rarely used on my site.  I have no plans to add CSS across the entire website, due to the very large amount of editing work that it would take to do it correctly. The result of my laziness is that there can be modest differences in layout on my pages.   I do have some scripting, as required.

In 2012-2013 I added a very nice function: click on one icon placed near the top of every page & the user could automatically have the viewed page translated into nearly any language.  The Javascript I used had compatibility problems, so I removed it all in 2013.   If you now want a translated page function, I suggest using the Google Chrome browser, because you can turn on Google's translator, it is very good, and the Chrome browser is settable to automatically translate any pages of any website within seconds after you put the page on your monitor screen.

One problem has existed for some time, and I doubt I will get around to fixing it, or, not fully.  That problem is how a pdf document is displayed, and its functionality.  If you have a problem, let me know the exact details.  

My original intention was that this website was to be "the" repository in an encyclopedia, for Airhead knowledge, that these bikes could be maintained and ridden for many decades after BMW stopped producing them in 1995/1996.  I wanted to have the vast majority of information in great depth.  Any needed knowledge in addition to what is on this website could be obtained relatively fast by posting a message onto the Airheads Internet Mailing List, as hosted by  I also started to provide links, which I have done extensively, to pertinent articles, photos, & videos, done by other folks.   Later, I started adding my information on Oilheads, Classic K-bikes, and sidecar rigs.  I also began to incorporate broad-category articles, particularly on electrics.  Today, there are quite a few websites with good information ... certainly moreso than many years ago.  My ego is constantly stroked by those who find my website to be the best source of information.  I try hard to keep it that way....unfortunately, I am unable to keep it absolutely current, on every page.  If you find things, such as part numbers, in need of updating, please send me the exact information, and I will look into the matter.

I am well-aware that this website is not used to the extent it should & could be.   Many folks that do know about it, find it 'easier' to post questions to the Airheads List or to the Airheads Facebook Page; or other popular Facebook pages for Airheads; or Forums on BMWMOA and the site, and other sites.    Unfortunately, altogether too often the responses are not complete enough, or result in too many 'guessing' or 'smarty pants' or other 'I just want to say anything' responses/answers from those who should not be posting; this is very particularly so on Facebook Groups, where responses are often too social or 'me too' ....or total guessing or even wasting-your-time type of messages.  Facebook was designed for social contact, and to 'grab' your personal information, so as to push advertising at you, in all sorts of ways you'd not expect.   Some folks do use the Airheads LIST Archives, probably  not enough, as one can see the repetitively same questions year by year.    I wish they would use my website more, & use my site's search function more.  It is my hope that the Forums section of the Vintage BMW Club website will eventually be THE or one of the primary sources, used in conjunction with my website.  Perhaps these thoughts are just my ego popping up on you.  On the other hand, I want to eliminate poor responses to your searching for answers to questions.

Quite awhile ago I put a modest number of my articles onto the oldest original website, under Technical Tips.  The past webmasters worked with me to transfer-over those old specially edited articles of mine.  I reviewed/edited them extensively in early 2016.   After thinking things over, regarding how information is found and used; and, considering my age; and, that the Club needed some revitalizing for additional value, in early 2017 I contacted the Airheads Beemer Club Board about putting more specially edited copies of some of my pertinent Airheads articles on their website.  This was accomplished, and in the past I have usually annually checked the articles for any needed updating.  I have STOPPED doing this.  I NO LONGER EDIT THOSE ARTICLES!  ONLY a SMALL percentage of my articles are at that site.

I have thought about having a mirror of my site, but decided it was not needed.  The Vintage BMW Club website is hosted on a private server, and their webmaster is FAR more knowledgeable about the intricacies than I am....and is typically speedy about fixing any problems.

This website was intended to cover things in depth.  Sometimes I do write simpler step-by-step articles, but, primarily, this website is designed to be a repository for deeply-detailed information.  Much more information than you may need at any one time is usually in one or more articles. The disadvantage is that you might have to wade-through to find what you want.  To reduce your searching efforts in my website for pertinent articles, or articles containing what you are interested in, I have included a very powerful Search Engine.  Once you become familiar with my website & its search engine, you will be able to find things very easily ...and it usually returns answers that might exist in various ways in several articles.

I utilized many sources for the technical knowledge on this website.  Much came from my experiences, even as far back when the /2 models were sold new ...and, my involvement became much deeper when the /5 & /6 were the models being sold by dealers, as I was the Chief Technician & 'Head of the Shop' at a BMW dealership. For a long time I traveled & did trouble-shooting for several other shops when they had 'problems'.   In other words, I was a 'Hired Troubleshooter'.   I made extensive notes & I used a high percentage of these notes for this website.  Information also came from my experiences from being an Owner & Wrench on a number BMW bikes (I have over 650,000 miles on BMW bikes, most is on Airheads); and, from experiences at my own BMW repair shop.    I collected information & made notes from information from Butler & Smith (some came from The Flanders Company, the West Coast distributor for BMW ever so long ago).   Butler & Smith were the East Coast located BMW importers/distributors before the present BMWNA.  After leaving my position as chief tech, I retained access to BMWNA-provided Technical Bulletins for many years.  I obtained information from BMW dealerships, independent mechanics & shops, two official Friends Of The Marque (especially noticeable was my friendship with OAK, Orlando Okleshen), ....&... from owners.  I had direct access to BMWNA (names will NOT be released by me).  I had access to some information directly from the BMW factory.  I strongly tried to keep up with all Airheads problems, factory bulletins, etc.  I did the same for the early Oilheads and early K bikes.  In addition, owners' input can be quite helpful, and even a necessity, whether about some hardly-known or unknown tech or problem, or asking questions & asking for help, on such as the Airheads internet mailing list, etc.  After 60+ years of working on BMW bikes, I still learn things, & certainly I learn from teaching (Docendo Discimus).

There have been other sources come forward, ....especially since ~ 2001.  These 'other sources' are often professional wrenches; who provide information, sometimes new ways of looking at things, & sometimes provide updated part numbers, information on parts fitment problems, etc.    Input from known reliable sources, such as "guru's", & other professionals, are often acknowledged by name and often by links in my website.  As noted, owners & riders also provide ideas for technical repair information/responses ...and I especially appreciate them contacting me when errors, even typos, are seen.   There are a few private owners (and a couple of repair companies) who are now doing excellent websites and even doing videos on repairs, restorations, etc.  I add links in this website to articles or websites...but, NEVER EVER for my profit.

I had input from oil, tire and other manufacturer's from personal contacts & correspondence.  Information on fuels, oils & greases, etc., came somewhat from my own testing & experience, but I obtained major information from engineering folks involved.  This was also true for other items.  I also attended college-level & industry engineering level seminars, etc., on subjects like lubrication.  Information from engineers in various companies can be of particularly good use; many spoke freely directly to me.  Many (including my contacts at BMWNA) could have been fired for providing insider information (I had contacts for just about anything and everything).  That was also the case with some other sources.   I had input from  BMW factory engineering and production folks....mostly unquotable attributable.  In most instances I managed to put the information into this website without me endangering their jobs by direct quotation and attribution.

Many pages in this website, including, but hardly exclusively, and, will list or link to other people's websites or E-addresses.  This does not mean I necessarily endorse them or their information, even if some of these people I have worked with personally.  I have numerous links on this website to websites or articles where I have had no or very little input, where I find information that might be valuable to you.  In some instances I even provide links to articles where I disagree.  I usually explain such.  In quite a few instances I have not done articles on some subject because they were already well or adequately done by others.   I will typically tell you where to find those articles, perhaps by a link and/or description.  In some instances I have helped others do their articles, to be published in MOA-ON (BMW-ON), or other magazines, or on-line.   I also have done seminars at BMWMOA National Rallies, Airheads TechDays, taught and otherwise spoke at SuperTech a couple of times, and I expect to continue to do seminars, etc....but this is definitely going to be increasingly seldom, due to my slowly failing health.

I have put many thousands of hours of labor into this website. That is NOT an exaggeration.  I continue to update & work on it.  I doubt I will ever stop while I am still capable.

The primary purpose for this site is still the same as always; to give you the benefit on my & other's many years of experience, & to 'pass-on' that knowledge.  My hope is that you will pass on the knowledge accurately!

There is a difference, often a huge one, between what I try to do for you on this website, versus some other sites (let alone commentary on various Forums, Lists, Facebook groups, and even some articles in magazines).  Unfortunately, a few independents ...and many dealerships ...try to sell you only what they stock or otherwise sell, which may well not be what you should purchase (if anything!).

I think I do a good job at avoiding personal or business bias in my information on this website.

This website has always been free for anyone to access.

I also do articles for general information:
Two major examples on this website are , which includes a section on basic electricity; and, an article on basic oil and lubrication theory: There are other general-use articles.

I also wrote/write under two pen-names for magazines.  My articles for them are always done in a very different style of writing, typically much more tightly, with better grammar and punctuation, and graphics.  No, you will not be informed about those magazines. If you happen to find out what my pen names are, and what magazines, please keep it to yourself!

Besides what I have already mentioned, what's up for the future for this website?

I may do more basic step-by-step (perhaps beginner's?) articles.  Those new articles would be specifically written to get those new to the BMW bikes a quick education on owning, riding, servicing.  In that regard, I may also continue to modify some of my existing articles to include such.   BTW ...this site has an article describing my viewpoint on what service jobs can be done by someone, depending on their level of knowledge:
I'm not overly happy about that article, and probably should re-work it.

I suggest you don't fail to scan the entire HomePage. See what articles are listed towards the bottom; after wading through my personal photos and other commentaries, jokes, whatever; ....Many articles are not available from the Technical Articles List Page ....and, thus are easily overlooked.

I will continue to edit, update & improve existing articles.  I will occasionally add a new article when I see a need ...or perhaps you or others suggest something.  

I have thought about occasional hands-on CLINICS, which would be more intense than weekend TechDays or Seminars at such as BMW-MOA National Rallies.  I will not be organizing my own Clinics, due to my age and health.  Should there come about a yearly West Coast SuperTech, I likely would participate if asked-to.   I attended, taught, and was the Keynote Speaker, at SuperTech in Pennsylvania in February 2019 (also 2011).

I dropped the idea of purchasing a video camera & setting up some sort of studio here for making how-to videos or just well-illustrated articles, because others are doing it, some quite well, such as Brook Reams.  Another good source is Boxer2Valve.  Another reason is the problem of trying to replace or edit videos that are on-line in places NOT on my website, as time goes on.

Regarding comprehensive articles on such as overhauling the engine bottom end, transmission & rear drive:
   Each of these three items, but especially the transmission, would require a hugely long article, in order to fully treat the subject for all years, all models, and every little or major change that came about.   There are PROBABLY less than a dozen people that do these jobs 100% properly in the USA/Canada area.  I made the decision NOT to do these articles due to the enormous amount of effort that would be involved.  I know I will regret this decision.

A note from June, 2019: 
I spent the $$ to incorporate SSL and other security precautions for the website, so there is less likely to be malware infections.   This expense came about due to a complicated brute-force injection of redirection code, re-directing browser searches (Did NOT happen if you typed in my direct address) to ads for Viagra and other pharma crap.   I had the paid-for DSL service managed for me by my ISP because I was way too busy with other things ...then.  

In June 2020, it was no longer paid management.  I now did all the work myself.  In September 2020, major changes to the hosting, etc., was made.  MAJOR update information is near the end of this article.

I joined the ABC in the 1990's.  For many years I have participated on the Airheads mailing list (a FREE List type service hosted by  Long before any of the current "guru's" were on that list was just about only me that was, in practice, the only major source of serious technical information on that LIST.   Some on that LIST, including the Moderators & Administrators (I am now officially one of those), used to have a fun 'monthly contest' on who posted the most lines of text.   I used to 'win' the contest nearly every month.  I'm verbose anyway ....just consider the length of the article you are now reading!

It was a sometimes heady, sometimes frustrating, often rewarding experience.   It really was the beginning era of mass communications capability and availability, ...including for such as maintaining Airheads.  As you can see, I tend to be verbose anyway; much of that wordiness is because I try to provide full information, including nuances, on anything I post about.  I view myself more or less as a TEACHER.  Perhaps a boring-you teacher?  YES ...I have teaching certificates & have taught in actual structured classes, at UCLA, & elsewhere's.   Long ago I occasionally shotgun-fired 'problem questions' at students, who had to instantly reply ....all to see what it took to overload them, & to force them to think quickly.   I also gave students problem questions that required an essay on a narrow question, different from each other.  That also forced them to think, very slowly, very deliberately, ....and hard to cheat.  

There are instances where I am not verbose, but overly succinct, or leave out information on purpose ...specifically pertinent are instances where I approach a subject in a way that is specifically designed by me to make the listener/reader THINK.  Thinking-through a problem is very important in order to be a good technician.

Some well-informed & experienced people now participate on the Airheads LIST, relieving the load on me tremendously.  There are/were a few on the Kbmw Tech List.....not to mention those who have LEARNED, and who participate in the discussions.  I TRULY APPRECIATE THEM.  It strokes my ego to think that some of their knowledge came from me.    In truth, much of the old-timers knowledge has been passed on to me.   We learn by teaching:  docendo discimus

Unfortunately, the various Facebook Airheads groups pages have way too much nonsense, wrong advice, bad advice, 'argumentative help' etc.  Facebook pages also are filled with 'look at me' and even extraneous items, advertisements, etc.  It takes a lot of my time to wade through it all. It's difficult for those using Facebook pages to determine who really knows things and can be relied-upon for advice.  I hoped that matured over time, BUT has gotten worse.   Facebook is, IMO, a LOUSY forum for technical advice.  Just try to find any advice a month later.  Just try to separate facts from blithering nonsense and 'guesses', not to mention getting off-topic.

I have been reducing my participation on some Lists, forums, etc.  I dropped the LeBlond Lathe list, as an example; and, with the 'big change' to Yahoo Groups, have removed myself from all of them, even eliminating my Yahoo Moderator role.  I do participate on the Airheads List;...and, now and then on a Facebook airheads group or several.  Rarely I respond on the tech list, Kbmw list, forum, & forums.  I am seldom on ADVrider, which I find to be, too often, another place for nonsense & bad advice.  I do not often  participate on model-specific Airheads sites, such as the R90S ....although I do participate on the slash 5 E-mailing list more often.  If I was still running a BMW repair business, I could NOT afford the time to do even 10% of what I do.    Still, with the excessive personal tech advice E-mails (which I try to discourage), I used to spend ~200 hours a month on my website and answering questions, etc.

I have a commercial website, that is for my part-time electronics repair business, moved in 2019, after nearly 50 years at Lake Tahoe, to Carson City, NV.   There are no cookies & no web-beacons placed by me in my two websites.   I work a quite modest amount of time on electronics repairs for customers.  If my health (I am a prostate cancer survivor of sorts and also have some heart problems) held up after the Covid pandemic, I expected to restart my charity work.  I did a considerable amount of 'charity' work in the past, while living at South Lake Tahoe, some was through my Kiwanis Club.  I maintained computers for a few others, including the local Seniors Center, where I set-up and maintain/serviced the entire computer network. I also subbed-in, now and then, as did Penny, for Bread and Broth (the Monday dinner for the homeless and anyone in need).  We intended to continue, but also be doing new things, now that we have moved to the Carson City area.  Penny was already volunteering with students at a local school, until the Covid Virus Pandemic shut that down.  Maybe, we'll re-join Muscle-Powered, the local club that has so much to do with bicycling, trail making, cleanup work, etc.  Presently, Penny, a retired RN, is a volunteer in the Emergency Room (ER) area at the large hospital complex here in Carson City, Nevada.

Sooner or later everyone dies. What to do about this website was on my mind for a very long time.  Up until ~August 30th, 2020, all my assets, including my BMW tech website & its special account for upkeep, were held in a formal legal Living Trust.  My heirs long have had instructions on what shall be done with the website after I die (or, horrors! incapacitated).  The website would continue to be available on the Internet for quite some time after my death, but might have eventually disappeared due to lack of enough income from advertising clicks and donations, and who knows what else.  I did not want my wife, Penny, to have to deal with the technical side of my website, bills, questions and answers and anything else.  She did not want these responsibilities.   Some quite modest amount of my Airheads-related technical articles, specially edited, have been available at the website, and were all checked, and many updated.   The process for all this ended ("Completed...Hooray") in early 2021.  There will be no further posting of more of my articles to that Club's site.  I have needed a better solution.  

As of September 2020, I have what I believe is the best solution to my website availability.   My Living Trust has been amended to reflect what has happened.   Following are major details:

I have completed a move of my entire website to an assigned 'Designated Server', no longer associated with GoDaddy .  My website and the Linode Server I use IS fully hosted, in a very professional upper-quality and secure manner, by the Vintage BMW Motorcycle Owners Club. The hosting will be for as long as I wish, but will pass to them upon my death or incapacitation. 
I invite you to read that page, and take a long look at the rest of the site,

What that Group/Club has already made available ...and will be further making available ....will surprise some of you, who have, or contemplate having, an early BMW motorcycle.....let alone the Club's strong presence now in the Airheads world.

My website will be owned and kept up by me, just like it always has been.   Appropriate backups ARE automatically done at the server level daily now.   That Club will retain/own the website, copyrights, etc., in perpetuity, as is, after I am unable to keep up the site, such as by incapacitation or dying.    The changes should ensure my site lives on in the best possible way, and will be hosted by knowledgeable and competent folks for the website & its tech, and also for keeping the Server use and functioning at a high level.  My website will be associated with a group of enthusiasts with wide-ranging abilities and a DO IT mentality, and that has strong leadership.   The Club is already the major repository of BMW motorcycle technical information for pre-Airheads, and has a working relationship with the motorcycle section of BMW in Germany; ...that means back to the first BMW motorcycle; and, now it is extended to the end of Airhead production by my contributions.   The Club, which has existed for about 48 years, has goals that are admirable, and our association should have a strong synergistic effect.   The capabilities of the Server are far beyond my needs now, or in the, high speed, huge bandwidth....and all the bells and whistles of such as security, etc.  My E-mail is handled by the same server; even my electronics business is handled by the same Server.   The capability is such that future updates, even videos & sound, can be inserted, without practical limitations. The hosting between the Club and the Internet is through a ISP whose owner is a Member of that Club.   The ISP's server is under control of the Club's webmaster.

Those familiar with my BMW website will not likely notice any changes, except a Vintage Club banner with clickable accesses, located at the top of most pages and possibly increased speed and even more reliability. The Google Ad-Sense advertising presently at ...and only at ...the top of an article...may...or may not...remain. I have not yet decided on that.  When the Vintage Club takes over administration of my website, the advertising might disappear.    Everything needed that can possibly be handled 'in-house' will be so done by some VERY talented folks.  

I am possibly done updating my personal computer gear, although some is quite old.  The website transition work is completed, and fully operational.  I would not have been able to do it without the 'Wonder'-full help of a member of this Vintage BMW Owners Club, James Wonder.  My website will continue mostly as it is now, with its large Airheads presence, and its sections for sidecars, early Oilheads, and Classic K bikes.   The Vintage Club has both an on-line presence and a printed magazine; and, all past issues ....together with a longish list of available owners booklets/manuals .....ETC., are already available for you to look at, and even download.  There are major advantages for me and for the Vintage BMW Owners Club to be associated with each other. Over the coming years, there may be ever larger advantages.

For the foreseeable future, nothing will change with my E-address nor my website address.  I will continue to be active on the Airheads List, as well as a Moderator.

I ask that you please use my website information wisely, morally, and ACCURATELY pass on your knowledge. I shall throw thunderbolts from the sky (or from Hell?) if you do not!  :-)

TO DONATE:  Go to emailimage.htm and write down my e-mail address located in the image, and then use PayPal to send donations to my E-address.  
Go to PayPal and send your donation money to that exact E-mail address.  That's how PayPal works.

You can also donate in a much smaller way by simple clicking (no purchases needed) on ads and within ads ....all of which are located ONLY at the top of my articles, and cost you only a few moments of time. 

You might want to visit my two selling/bartering/purchasing pages:

What do you think about the way I have handled things?   What about my association with the Vintage Club? Got a gripe?  Hurrah's?  Comments?


RE:  PayPal:
On 10/19/2021 someone sent me a donation.  In the past, I could acknowledge such, by getting their E-mail address from my PayPal account, so I could thank them, and sometimes offer some sort of technical advice, etc, as appropriate.  On this date, PayPal NO LONGER seems to have the sender's E-mail address shown anyplace.  This might be due to a foul-up with European regulations that PayPal put into effect for all accounts.  The only way I can respond to the sender is to send an E-mail through the PayPal system of responding, and I won't know if that got send/received.  Hopefully, PayPal will change this new policy.  I doubt it.


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Last check/edit: Thursday, September 21, 2023